Marcos and the Red Scare: Martial Law in Retrospect

With the recent 30th Anniversary of the 1986 EDSA “Revolution”, the martial law era of President Ferdinand E. Marcos was once again put in bad light. This, as President BS Aquino again showed the alleged atrocities of the Marcos regime without being able to highlight whatever he was able to achieve. Again, there were morons who said EDSA 1986 removed martial law (even though martial law had already been lifted in 1981). In any case, this article provides an alternative critique on the martial law era under Marcos, a critique which serves as an alternative on the oligarchy has fed us over the last three decades.

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The yellow cult is quick to accuse the Marcos supporters of historical amnesia when they themselves suffer from it. What they have forgotten (and even some Marcos supporters have forgotten this) is that during the time of Marcos, the world was in the middle of the Cold War. In the arms race between the Soviet Union and the United States, the communist ideology was spreading fast in the world. The Asia-Pacific including the Philippines was not spared from this.

In 1949, just four years after the end of World War II, the communists in China led by Mao Zedong came into power after overthrowing Chiang Kai Shek’s Kuomintang government (which was forced to exile in the island of Formosa). With the help of the Soviet Union, a communist regime had also been installed in North Korea led by Kim Il Sung. Years later, the red influence would also head to Southeast Asia.

In Thailand, there was also a communist movement which lasted until 1983. In Malaysia, the Communist Insurgency War lasted from 1968 to 1989. This gives us two Southeast Asian nations who were also plagued with the communist movement.

Of course, we have the Vietnam War. The United States got involved directly in that war, and the Philippines also pitched in some help. But, the communists prevailed and took over Vietnam which they rule up to this day. In Cambodia, by year 1975, the communists under Pol Pot took over. The Khmer Rogue wiped out an estimated 1/4 up to 1/3 of the Cambodian population. The fall of the Vietnamese and Cambodian governments took place 3 years after martial law was declared, and who knows what might have happened to the Philippines if Marcos never declared martial law.

The Philippines was already experiencing a war on two fronts. In the South, there was the Moro National Liberation Front backed by Malaysia and Libya and seeking to establish an independent Islamic state in Mindanao. And as previously mentioned, the CPP-NPA was also launching a war. The People’s Republic of China was about to aid the CPP-NPA by sending a few thousand rifles, explosives, and bullets through Isabela province and Jose Maria Sison. Fortunately, the military was able to intercept the arms landing.

Several accounts also state that Senator Benigno “Ninoy” Aquino Jr. was collaborating with Sison in preparation of an armed struggle against the Marcos government. Again, the Philippines was fortunate that Secretary Juan Ponce Enrile thwarted this plan. Sison was out to become the next Mao Zedong, and Nur Misuari was seeking an independent state in Mindanao.

In response, President Marcos in 1972 placed the entire country under martial law. A dictatorial rule was established, and the Marcos government finally punched back. The Moro insurgency and the communist movements were violently suppressed, thus leading to what they call “human rights violations.” The United States under President Richard Nixon did not object to the declaration of martial law, but Marcos earned their ire when he pursued an independent foreign policy and started diplomatic ties with China and the Soviet Union.

I can hardly blame Marcos for the human rights violations. If anything, the rebel forces along with the communist-influenced activists brought it upon themselves. They provoked the monster that was the Marcos government. In Weberian theory, the state is entitled to the legitimate use of physical force within its territory.

The end result of martial law was that the Philippine Republic remained standing. One would not be mistaken that martial law saved the Philippine Republic from falling into communist hands. Marcos was a product of the circumstances of his time, and he rose to the challenge. In a time when governments were falling to communist hands, Marcos was able to take steps which allowed the Philippines to survive. But today, Marcos is heavily pointed out for violating human rights when only a few people even understood the circumstances at the time. People who are too shallow to know the history of Asia during the time say he declared martial law on a whim.

We can say all we want about martial law and Marcos. It doesn’t matter if I like or hate Marcos. But there is something that I am sure about. And that is I am thankful that during the time when the communists were powering up and the Moros were preparing to secede, it was Ferdinand Marcos in Malacanang and not Ninoy Aquino. I am glad that it was Marcos that was president, not someone who is a sellout and not someone who is too soft to unleash force against those who sought to overthrow the state.

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34 Comments on “Marcos and the Red Scare: Martial Law in Retrospect”

  1. Marcos policies strengthened both the NPA and MNLF during his time. Martial Law was enacted only for 1 reason, to strengthen his hold on power and remove his political opponents from the equation. All justifications were bogus and incidents were created to bolster the argument for Martial Law. Both NPA and MNLF was strongest near the end of Marcos term. They were nothing during Marcos early years, bogeymen magnified to justify Martial Law. The severe economic dislocation and bad policies during his term strengthened their numbers.

    “Several accounts also state that Senator Benigno “Ninoy” Aquino Jr. was collaborating with Sison in preparation of an armed struggle against the Marcos government.” Conspiracy theory by Pro marcos propagandists to justify his arrest.

    The thing is there was no justification for Martial Law and no justification for 1 person to rule the Philippines for 20 years.

    1. Can you refute these?

      1969-1970, naging talamak ang pangingidnap at pagpatay ng NPA

      January 1970, Binomba ang Joint US Military Advisory Group Headquarters sa Quezon City

      January 30 1970, may 50,000 mangagawa at mga estudyanteng aktibista (na naimpluwesyahan na ng ideolohiyang komunismo) ang lumusob sa malakanyang ,at sinunog ang ilang bahagi ng medical bldg. Gamit nila ang isang Fire truck na kanilang pilit na kinuha upang madaling makapasok.

      October 1970, may mga kaso ng karahasan ang naitala sa ilang campus sa maynila. May pagsabog din ng mga pillboxes na naganap sa ilang paaralan.

      December 1970, pinasabog ang dalawang Catholic school at dalawang government buildings sa Calbayog City .

      December 11 1970, napatunayan sa Supreme Court na ang mga karahasang nagaganap sa bansa ay kagagawan ng mga Komunista na nais agawin ang pamamahala sa bansa.

      December 29 1970, sinalakay ni NPA Commander na si Victor Corpuz ang Armoury ng PMA.

      June 1971, binomba ang Constitutional convention hall

      August 21 1971, binomba ang Plaza Miranda, ayon kay dating senador Jovito Salonga, Jun Alcover (dating NPA officer) at victor corpus( dating NPA commander), si JOMA SISON ang may pakana.

      1971, May mga pinasabog na Oil firms sa maynila. Pinasabugan din ang main pipe ng NAWASA, Meralco substation sa Q.C, congress building, comelec building, Meralco main office premises sa ortigas at doctors pharmaceuticals inc building sa Caloocan.

      February 1972, pinasabugan ang U.S embassy

      March 1972, pinasabugan ang Greater Manila Terminal Food Market

      March 15 1972 binomba ang Arca building

      May 30 1972: binomba ang vietnamese embassy

      April 23 1972 Binomba ang Filipinas Orient Airways board room sa Domestic Road, Pasay City

      April 1972, pinasabugan ulit ang U.S embassy

      June 23 1972, Binomba ang Court of Industrial Relations

      June 24 1972, binomba ang Philippine Trust Company branch office sa Cubao, Quezon City

      July 3 1972, binomba ang Philamlife building sa United Nations Avenue

      July 18 1972 , bigong pagpapasabog sa kongreso

      July 27 1972 binomba ang Tabacalera Cigar & Cigarette Factory Compound at Marquez de Comilas, Manila

      July 1972 napigilan ng militar ang barko galing china “MV KARAGATAN” na magsusupply sana ng mga armas sa NPA na hiningi ni Joma Sison kay communist chairman mao tse tung.

      August 15 1972 binomba ang PLDT exchange office sa East Avenue at ang Philippine Sugar Institute building sa North Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City

      August 17 1972, binomba ang Department of Social Welfare building

      August 19 1972, binomba ang water main sa Aurora Boulevard at Madison Avenue, Quezon City

      August 30,1972, bigong pagpapasabog sa Department of foreign Affairs

      August 30 1972, binomba ulit ang Philamlife building

      September 5 1972, binomba ang Joe’s Department Store sa Carriedo

      September 8 1972, binomba ang Manila city hall

      September 12 1972, binomba ang watermains sa San Juan at Rizal

      September 14 1972, Binomba ang San Miguel building sa Makati

      September 18, 1972, Binomba ang Quezon City Hall

      1. 32 years of MADPnoy hacienda luisita self interest of a Communist and a Makapili ng japon of the third world status Philippines kulangkulang99 legacy of a fake Pilipino hero NINOY Aquino, whose self interest cause is not worth for a Pilipino to die for.

    2. We the people believe, not the rightist thou , that the timely Martial Law declaration by Pres FEMarcos saved our country from communist and insurgencies . Marcos is not a Dictator ,he was a Nation Builder and savior of the Philippine Republic. Long live the hero, Pres. Ferdinand E. Marcos.
      We love the Marcoses …

      1. Agreed to Apo Lakay Marcos Masagana99 Great nation Builder legacy of twenty two years Progressive Philippines Food basket of asia, resulting from the conversion of a quarter of a million peasants to landowner farmers, the real opposite of zero conversion of peasants of MADpnoy third world status Creation of the Philippines.

    3. Actually, there is a former news article about an interview on Joma Sison stating that Ninoy connected with everyone, including Reds.

      Well, as expected from Aquino apologists: all crap and no substance.

    4. So wala pa lang justification why Marcos declared martial law. ASEAN was founded in 1967, first and foremost, to fight communists insurgency in Asia. Look what happened to Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia, and North Korea. So mali pala ang ASEAN ?

      1. hindi pa ba sapat na justifications itong mga nangyaring pambobomba nuon:

        Bernabe Buscayno says:
        March 1, 2016 at 11:27 am
        Can you refute these?

        1969-1970, naging talamak ang pangingidnap at pagpatay ng NPA

        January 1970, Binomba ang Joint US Military Advisory Group Headquarters sa Quezon City

        January 30 1970, may 50,000 mangagawa at mga estudyanteng aktibista (na naimpluwesyahan na ng ideolohiyang komunismo) ang lumusob sa malakanyang ,at sinunog ang ilang bahagi ng medical bldg. Gamit nila ang isang Fire truck na kanilang pilit na kinuha upang madaling makapasok.

        October 1970, may mga kaso ng karahasan ang naitala sa ilang campus sa maynila. May pagsabog din ng mga pillboxes na naganap sa ilang paaralan.

        December 1970, pinasabog ang dalawang Catholic school at dalawang government buildings sa Calbayog City .

        December 11 1970, napatunayan sa Supreme Court na ang mga karahasang nagaganap sa bansa ay kagagawan ng mga Komunista na nais agawin ang pamamahala sa bansa.

        December 29 1970, sinalakay ni NPA Commander na si Victor Corpuz ang Armoury ng PMA.

        June 1971, binomba ang Constitutional convention hall

        August 21 1971, binomba ang Plaza Miranda, ayon kay dating senador Jovito Salonga, Jun Alcover (dating NPA officer) at victor corpus( dating NPA commander), si JOMA SISON ang may pakana.

        1971, May mga pinasabog na Oil firms sa maynila. Pinasabugan din ang main pipe ng NAWASA, Meralco substation sa Q.C, congress building, comelec building, Meralco main office premises sa ortigas at doctors pharmaceuticals inc building sa Caloocan.

        February 1972, pinasabugan ang U.S embassy

        March 1972, pinasabugan ang Greater Manila Terminal Food Market

        March 15 1972 binomba ang Arca building

        May 30 1972: binomba ang vietnamese embassy

        April 23 1972 Binomba ang Filipinas Orient Airways board room sa Domestic Road, Pasay City

        April 1972, pinasabugan ulit ang U.S embassy

        June 23 1972, Binomba ang Court of Industrial Relations

        June 24 1972, binomba ang Philippine Trust Company branch office sa Cubao, Quezon City

        July 3 1972, binomba ang Philamlife building sa United Nations Avenue

        July 18 1972 , bigong pagpapasabog sa kongreso

        July 27 1972 binomba ang Tabacalera Cigar & Cigarette Factory Compound at Marquez de Comilas, Manila

        July 1972 napigilan ng militar ang barko galing china “MV KARAGATAN” na magsusupply sana ng mga armas sa NPA na hiningi ni Joma Sison kay communist chairman mao tse tung.

        August 15 1972 binomba ang PLDT exchange office sa East Avenue at ang Philippine Sugar Institute building sa North Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City

        August 17 1972, binomba ang Department of Social Welfare building

        August 19 1972, binomba ang water main sa Aurora Boulevard at Madison Avenue, Quezon City

        August 30,1972, bigong pagpapasabog sa Department of foreign Affairs

        August 30 1972, binomba ulit ang Philamlife building

        September 5 1972, binomba ang Joe’s Department Store sa Carriedo

        September 8 1972, binomba ang Manila city hall

        September 12 1972, binomba ang watermains sa San Juan at Rizal

        September 14 1972, Binomba ang San Miguel building sa Makati

        September 18, 1972, Binomba ang Quezon City Hall

    5. Lord I pray for your blessings for the soldiers who were ambush and killed in depending the republic of the philippines during NPA and MNLF insurgency… and bless this guy rightist that a yellowtard and one of the yellowminded,,,,/…

    6. No justification daw?haha bulag ka o nagbubulag bulagan tlga?lht ng tamang impormasyon tungkol sa martial law lumalabas na dhl sa internet.wag ka mag judge dhl sa pinapakain sa utak mo ng dilaw na propaganda laban sa marcoses.kung hndi dhl kay FEM malamang bansang komunista na tayo ngayon.hndi korap si marcos,un lng naman ang mbbntang nyu skanya kht wlang basehan eh.mayaman n sya bago pa mging presidente dhl sa binyad sknya ng tallano clan.lht gnwa nya para i angat ang kabuhayan sa pilipinas para sa mga pilipino.ang mga kurap ung mga aquino na hayok na hayok magkapangyarihan smantalang wla naman nagawa mga wlang bayag puru sisi gngwa.tngnan nyo duterte admin ngaun wla pang 3 months ang dami ng nagawa.eh ung panot admin nyo may nagawa ba laban sa mga drug lord na lumalason sa bansa ntin.magisip isip din kau mabuti mga dilwan.kung ayaw nyo sa pilipinas dun kayo sa china mga buktot!!

  2. Good sum up of historical context. I do think Marcos is a product of his times and started out with good intentions. He got lost along the way..same old story of human frailty. Anakin became Darth Vader.

  3. too much generalization… The author conveniently forgets that the height of communist uprising was never during Marcos time but in the 50s. The Communist ideology was then Stalinist (Russian) and the armed peasantry was called Hukbalahap (huks). The Huks was ironically formed in WW2 as a guerilla unit to fight the Japs and due to the economic hardships after the war, turned to the Communist ideology to secure power. The Philippine army was still raw and suffered reverses in the battlefield. The man who turned the situation around was Mr Ramon Magsaysay. During his time as defense secretary, he made sure combat supplies were reaching the front line troops, often conducting midnite inspections. Under his watch, the elite unit Phil Scout Ranger was formed to take the lead in the jungle wars against the Huks. ( probably conjecture on my part, but I think the Scout Rangers was the model for the US Special Forces since US military advisers were all here). But the most impressive was that Magsaysay showed the great masses he was fighting for them, didn’t tolerate military abuses (since the soldiers were fed, clothes, paid on time there was no cause to take from the poor peasant s). This probably where the phrase Winning hearts and minds originated. In short, the war was won but still remnants remained of the Communist insurgents. This is where Sison and Misuari come in. Both were firebrand Communist inspired ideologists from their university days in UP. Both men wanted power and Marcos unwittingly gave them the opportunity by declaring martial law.
    Was there a Communist threat large enough to topple the govt? In my opinion – none! The student demos etc, they got out of hand but there was no armed uprising. This was the 70s and you know the mindset at that time which the Phil youth aped: Woodstock, anti establishment, etc etc.. Definitely, the Muslim insurgency was non existent until that scandal – the jabidah massacre was brought to the papers by then Senator Ninoy (PNoy’s dad). Misuari got the idea for his cause and started the MNLF.
    Marcos then, was nearing the end of his second term, (max two 4yr terms) and Ninoy was the most popular candidate to succeed him. I guess he didn’t want to go out of the limelight, plus the US (heavily into the Vietnam war by this time) didnot want to take the chance of losing subic and Clark, looked the other way – decided to go extra constitutional and declared martial law….and that’s how things got to this point….
    Perception of events are like a pendulum. When martial law was initially declared everybody loved it as it brought order and stability (forced us guys to get haircut s) but by the time of the 80s the pendulum swung to the other side (and not without cause). Now, 30 yrs later, pendulum is swinging to the other side again….

    1. @ NES, your right, there was no communist threat. Like the ‘Gulf of Tonkin’ attack that never happened.

      Marcos was told what to do, and he did it….and he also plundered the country and got a swelled head and when he forgot who his boss was, THEY FIRED HIM…and Filipino’s had nothing to do with it.
      That is one of the funnier things about events in the Failippines.Filipino’s actually think they effect what is happening.EDSA was a ruse, and the people swallowed it hook line and siner.Like idiots they thought they actually did it.

    2. Jabidah Massacre was a hoax made up by your hero Ninoy Aquino as investigated by a Cavite court, the past Senate and the past Congress. These are not mere “perceptions” but facts. Perceptions are made up only when one relies on the lies biased media shoves down one’s throat.

    3. u mean all the bombing were staged and a prelude to declaring martial law so Marcos can stay in power longer or as much as he wants?

    4. everyone took advantage of he situations without knowing it that we are being taken for a ride by this USA of power.

  4. Marcos, with the help of the U.S., tried his damnest to keep the Reds out the country. The oligarchs have been letting the Reds in since 1986.

  5. That was the time…it was the best of the times…it was the worst of the times…some heroes came to save the republic…some villains came to politically profit from the chaos. Ninoy Aquino, Jr. sided with the NPA…he was sacrificed by the NPA…and the rest was history.

    EDSA, human rights violations, etc…pitched by the Aquinos and the YellowTards, are just politically motivated. It is ironic, that a family who owns huge agricultural land area like Hacienda Luisita; and have lots of poverty stricken tenants/serfs, is getting support from a communist front , like the NPA.
    The Right using the Left…the Left using the Right…all for struggle for political power.

    I am glad that , our country did not disintegrate like Syria; or fell to the NPA communist like Vietnam.

    1. During Marcos Times, there were a quarter of a million peasants that was converted into landownwer farmers, but this times of 32 years of madpnoy hacienda luisita self interest creation of a third world status Philippines is a zero conversion of peasants.

    2. well i think the USA of power did the manipulating, since Marcos was already fed up with them, they tried to influenced Aquino to be or as his successor, but they have other plans on the back of their manipulative minds. they want more turmoils to happen in our country to confuse the minds of the filipinos and as expected new set of heroes were born during the edsa revolt. this USA of power wants everything in their hands to happen in our country. they can dictate the future of our country. they want to stay in power worldwide that’s why they are the ones creating havoc, confusions, and war within a territorial country by merely turning every country to have a civil war within their land. then it’s time for them to come in and intervene.

  6. silipin nyo gnayon lahat ng katarantaduhan naglabasan yung pag talsik kan marcos naglabasan na rin tong pamalakad ng mga aquino e maka sariliman lang din pla sila d tulad n marcos talaga lahat ginawa nya na d tayo maging communista at tiger ng asia ang bansang pinas noon si marcos pa ano napala natin pag tapos ng edsa wala , si cory nag umpisa magnutang pera sa ibang bansa , gnayun silipin nyo anak nya si abnoy mas linubog ang bansang pilipinas sa utang , asan an tuwid na daan nya ,lahat ng bagay bulag si abnoy wala sya ginawang matuwid pro tae lang alam nya …

  7. This is something the anti-Marcos forces are always having a hard time to counter, though they will never admit it. It is good that there’s rightist and Nes around quickly offering a counter-view for the other side of the coin, so to speak. And, easily, by contrast, any reader could see how impoverished and cynical their views are. No big wonder really why, despite all their efforts, the Millennials could not be drawn to their side even if they knelt and begged. So, for their failure to even understand where their arguments fizzle, they resort to simply branding the Millennials as stupid and gullible, and slamming down opinions like yours as sophisticated lies peddled by highly-paid propagandists under the payroll of the Marcoses.

  8. It was the Marcoses and not the Aquinos who kept Philippines intact. Pnoy is selling this country to moro rebels with his BBL. Had this law been passed, the moros would have seceded and destroyed and divided this country. The Aquinos are a poison to this country.

      1. You’ve got that right Mr. ET Herrera. If there be one thing that Marcos Sr. did that was right, it was his fight against cecessionist elements in Mindanao and Sulu. He sued for peace, however, when the body count became intolerable; sending Imelda to Libya to secure some kind of peace deal. Thhs President, on the other hand, is quite comfortable, (even eager) to piss away Philippine territory for a dubious ‘legacy’.

  9. To sum it all up,,,Marcos was not a sell out!!!doing this he made enemies right left above and below,,,and that included the Americans which made sure that he got ousted,,,and that’s the bottom line,,,how ironic,,,the freedom that most elite yellow clad nationalist are saying that we are now enjoying is not even close to a mere dream or I would say a nightmare!!!you choose the life we had with Marcos back then or the paradise painted life we have now???

  10. The Red Scare was no mere scare. Communists really wanted to take over the country. So Marcos just did the duty of beating them back. Problem is, after martial law, the economy went bonk. That’s what did Marcos in.

  11. I can’t remember exactly how I worded it then; but, in a posting I had made in the ‘Inquirer’ and the ‘Philippine Star’ late in 2014, I had mentioned that our northern and southern extremities are just as vulnerable to foreign incursion and occupation as are the ‘Spratlys’ today… maybe more so. Itbayat Island, the northernmost populated island in the Batan Archipelago, (the Batanes), is closer to Kaoshung, in Taiwan than it is to Tuguegarao. It is also north of the Luzon Strait which is an important navigation channel for a ‘China-to-the-Spratys’ passage. Its importance to China and Taiwan is fairly obvious. In the southern Philippines, on the other hand, the islands Sibutu and Sitangkay in the Tawi-Tawi archipelago are very much closer to Malaysian North Borneo,(aka the Sultanate of Sulu) than they are to Jolo. Again, the interest that Malaysia must be entertaining is fairly obvious and cannot be over-estimated. I further, said that, as late as today, we still don’t know whether other ‘nationals’ already live in these islands; or, whether other languages are now spoken there.

    Since 2013, when China started to take serious looks at the Spratlys, even make bold moves such as shooing away Filipino fishermen from these shoals and sandbars, our knee-jerk reaction consisted more of righteous indignation and saber rattling. Only when China started to land troops in the Spratlys did we, still indignantly, initiate diplomatic protests; but even then, some sectors, still talked about making a ‘stand’. It would be laughable and a waste of time to make assessments of military capability with a view to making such a stand. To juxtapose the military might of the Philippines, vs that of Malaysia, Taiwan, or especially, China, would probably give us a very sobering thought.

    It is not late to soften our posture vis-a-vis China and her new landing strips and troop barracks in the Spratlys. China is now the second richest country in the world owing to their dualism in governance and economic management. Their economy’s gradual move towards western style capitalism..while remaining staunchly communistic in administrative control.. has produced more billionaires than there are in New York State. The Philippines, for her part, is among the poorer countries worldwide. While heavily populated, she is still underdeveloped, in terms of agriculture, mineral and precious metal extraction and industrial processing; although she also has a fairly developed infrastructure and a wealth of capable manpower and executive talent. Further to this, Philippine industry is predominantly controlled by Chinese speaking ‘Taipans’. In balance, the relationship could well be symbiotic. Considering ‘geography’ and the progressive move towards globalization, it is now time to have an honest conversation among ourselves on whether to stay under the umbrella of a western power, (alliances look good only on paper); or, to cozy up to a ‘lately’ powerful neighbor who could well be a partner in our security and development.

      1. Hi, Noel..
        That was, and still is, my assessment of how we are today.
        The Philippines is a vast archipelago, beautifully spread out.. unprotected.. over the balmy south seas, whose islands, (except for a blind stab at tourism), are still underdeveloped. It is the envy of many ambitious and aspiring hegemons, which is what China clearly is; and, which others like Malaysia and Indonesia hope to be. It is not too far a stretch to imagine that these neighbors dream of exploring and ‘cashing-in’ on developing our country’s natural resources for the benefit of their own citizens; (Hasn’t China already secured a foothold in the Spratlys as we speak? Haven’t we cavalierly thrown the Sultan of Sulu and his descendants ‘under the bus’ along with their rightful claim to Sabah? Aren’t we now poised to piss away valuable territory in Mindanao, Sulu and Basilan to a resurgent MILF? Isn’t possession 90% of ownership?).
        Juxtapose all that’s been said to the attitude, disposition and capability of the Army, the Navy, the Air Force, the Coast Guard, the Philippine National Police and their Chief in Malacanang. If you have scant information, or have no idea at all on these.. look it up. It could make you weep. Must I include all the useless preening, grandstanding and serial bickering that goes on in the Senate and in Congress?
        Now, that’s my take.

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