The 1986 revolution: an overselling cover-up of endemic failures

The movie Maid in Malacanang featured the perspective of the Marcos family on what transpired during the three fateful days that led to then-President Ferdinand Marcos leaving the Philippines. It is definitely a bestseller, raking in hundreds of millions in sales as the movie was being shown in cinemas worldwide. With another Marcos leading the country as the head of the Philippine government, the electorate has basically highlighted just how hapless the 1986 people power revolution really was. From this viewpoint, let’s analyze what made the 1986 revolution an overselling cover-up of political, economic, and social failures in the Philippines.

The usual narrative as to what led to the EDSA people power revolution is the assassination of then-Senator Benigno Aquino in Manila International Airport on August 21, 1983. However, pointing the death of a single man as the last straw that broke the camel’s back is too simplistic. There are economic and political reasons that led to the 1986 revolution. For the economic causes, the first domino piece to fall was the 1979 oil crisis, where the Iranian revolution toppled the leadership of the Persian Shah. Paired with Saddam Hussein’s invasion of the rich Iranian oil fields near the borders of Iraq, it created political uncertainty in the volatile Middle East which led to increased prices of hydrocarbon products. This led to inflation in the United States compelling then-US Federal Reserve Chair Paul Volcker to aggressively hike interest rates. This action further devalued the Philippine peso and with a greatly depreciating currency, the Central Bank of the Philippines issued these “Jobo bills” to confront this economic malaise. The debt-driven economic growth of the Philippines in the 1970’s put a heavy debt servicing burden on the government as the peso weakened versus the US dollar.

With economic indicators in the early 1980’s working against the Marcos administration, his political support from the various sectors of the society gradually waned. Oligarchic families belonging to the landed gentry were slowly distancing themselves from the president, while militant groups were emboldened and ramped up their recruitment of new members. The political situation became more precarious and unpredictable as state powers turned fraught with Philippine societal sectors colluding to shanghai the government. Aside from these leftist groups spearheaded by the Communist Party of the Philippines and the Marcos-aligned cronies who turned away from the Marcos administration, the Catholic church called on its followers to mount civil disobedience campaign. Marcos-era technocrats also left the sinking ship, and the president’s most influential allies in the military, who were Defense Secretary Juan Ponce Enrile and Philippine Constabulary General Fidel Ramos, publicly withdrew their support. This tumultuous political environment later forced then-US President Ronald Reagan to pull the plug, as what Henry Kissinger has written in his book, Diplomacy.

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The bloodless 1986 revolution ended relatively peaceful with the Marcos family deciding to quietly retreat, leaving Malacanang and, later, the Philippines for Hawaii. The EDSA revolution was highly publicized internationally, as it was sold as a trendsetter in overthrowing authoritarian regimes. These individuals who say so enumerate the revolutionary experiences of various European countries in Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Romania, glorifying the 1986 revolution as the first domino to fall in countering autocratic governments and its accompanying successes. But, is there something to celebrate about the aforementioned revolution in the Philippines in the first place? Or was it just a celebration created to feed and inflate the egos of Filipinos?

Let’s take a look on what has transpired first in Poland. Right after the downfall of the German Third Reich, Poland was reformed after being sliced into half by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in accordance to the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact. As a Soviet satellite state, Poland was administered by a USSR-aligned political party where communist policies were followed. However, a trade union named “Solidarity” challenged the Polish state through civil resistance and social movement. Despite the government’s attempt to suppress this movement, public support from the Vatican through Pope Saint John Paul II and the United States eventually pushed for democratic elections, which elevated Solidarity’s leader, Lech Walesa to the presidency. Nevertheless, structural reform in the Polish political economy followed, pushing the country down a continuous economic growth path. Warsaw became one of the European Union’s engine of prosperity and productivity, as it has continuously recorded higher GDP per capita numbers in comparison to the previous years. Observing these inclusive institutions in Poland, it can be said that Lech Walesa and his Solidarity movement was a resounding success.

For Czechoslovakia, its popular civil disobedience movement was called the Velvet Revolution, which witnessed the collapse of communist leadership in a relatively peaceful manner. However, it had a grim past through the Prague Spring, where initial attempts to reform Czechoslovakia were suppressed through militaristic means when then-USSR leader Leonid Brezhnev pursued the Brezhnev doctrine, where Warsaw Pact countries were allowed to intervene militarily in the affairs of their own fellow Warsaw Pact nation-states. With the Velvet Revolution, Vaclav Havel became the president and later allowed the peaceful separation of Czechia and Slovakia in 1992. Presently, both Prague and Bratislava are popular tourist destinations in Central Europe and have adopted free market reforms that made them more competitive. Their integration to the EU and to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) as member-states show how Czechoslovakia had transformed into mature and formidable countries in Czechia and Slovakia. Needless to say, the Velvet Revolution of 1989 created victors as these nation-states enjoy political plurality that was recklessly managed during the Prague Spring.

Finally with Romania, its autocratic government came to an end when great masses of the people confronted the Ceausescus and subjected them to a military tribunal after which they were executed. Similar with other Warsaw Pact-aligned countries after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, various reforms were performed, albeit achieving mixed results. Even though Bucharest eventually became a member of the EU and the NATO, it didn’t curb their citizens’ desires to leave their country in search for greener pastures. That’s why there are still numerous Romanian migrant workers employed in the service sector of the economies of the United Kingdom and Germany. Despite its attempts to democratize and liberalize, corruption issues in Romania are also running rampant and child poverty is still a major social issue. These dilemmas being experienced by Romania seems eerily similar to that of the Philippines.

All these European countries, as what Charles Tilly in his book Coercion, Capital, and European States, developed through a continuous process of accumulating and concentrating the means of coercion. These countries have undoubtedly experienced the errors of massive power centralization and attempted to correct them beyond those revolutions through economic and political reforms. Poland, Czechia, and Slovakia leapfrogged, while Romania seems to lag, as their economy is still dependent on foreign remittances just like the Philippines. Waging revolutions is only the means for the society to mobilize, not the ends. Revolutions are worthless, unless it succeeds at creating the necessary state and societal institutions. With such, did the 1986 revolution produce inclusive institutions, or did it just end up staging power struggles between politicians and various interest groups?

43 Replies to “The 1986 revolution: an overselling cover-up of endemic failures”

    1. It doesn’t surprised me a bit. Given their CIA history shenanigans and their mafia-like activities in other countries.

      1. You guys blame the USA for the failure of the Philippines. Why do you guys act like the USA is the biggest evil in the world? It’s not really an evil nation. Philippines is far more corrupt than the USA that the USA will look like a saint if you compare these 2 countries. The Philippines failed also because of many people, corruption, disobedience to law, lack of discipline, disrespect, laziness, anti-intellectualism, crab mentality, hypocrisy and double standards have become normal in that country and calling them out for it will just make them angry with you. Look at that country, few of them are decent but many of them just resort to ad hominem in discussions or debates, especially when they’re losing the debates, many of them also get angry with differences of opinions, no wonder Philippines is a failed third world country and unless these cultures are not thrown away, it will always be a failure so take responsibility instead of blaming the US government for your country’s failures.

        1. What are you getting angry at me for? I just state of what’s already known about the US government and their CIA mafia-like activities in other countries that they may or may not involved with for who knows and when did I blame the US for this country’s misfortune? What the heck?

        2. “Philippines is far more corrupt than the USA that the USA will look like a saint if you compare these 2 countries.”
          – – – – –
          I suggest you go slow on that before you choke.

        3. Well, many people even in GRP often blame the USA or at least paint the US as if it’s an evil god. The Philippines failed because of corruption in the world. Anyway, like Jerry Lynch said, it’s irrelevant how Marcos was ousted.

          Juan Luna, why don’t you check the corruption perceptions index and compare both USA and Philippines to see how corrupt Philippines is?

        4. Looks like you’re not aware of corruption in the US, like politicians giving away taxpayers’ money to friends in business whose businesses are going under. Bailouts have been happening in secret for a long time. Someone also commented before that whatever corruption method we’re doing here, we learned from America.

        5. Juan Luna, why don’t you check the corruption perceptions index and compare both USA and Philippines to see how corrupt Philippines is?
          – – – – –
          I’m aware of the Corruption Perception Index and I use it as a guide to understand the difference in degree of corruption that takes place in different countries. Same act, different kinds of participants. Unlike in boxing, though, CPI has no weight category. The heavyweights are measured together with the lightweights. The corrupt rich is mixed with the corrupt poor and we pick who is better?

          I also do not use it to present one side as saint just because one think that the other side is more corrupt. I’ve seen American Greed (documentary) and Dark money (film), as an example, to say with certainty that the US, compared with anyone, is not a saint by any stretch when it comes to corruption.

        6. I know about American politics, I just said that the US will look like a saint if you compare it with the Philippines because Philippines is heavily corrupt, greed, corruption, impunity and incompetence have become normal there and honor, justice, righteousness, competence and even kindness are rarer than diamonds there, no wonder it’s a failed country which is nothing but a laughing stock. The US is still very clean if you compare those countries with each other.

        7. “I know about American politics…” – No Data
          – – – – –
          Believe me, you don’t. Saying that line is a lie. And gauging by how you perceive what America is, I’m pretty sure you have yet to scratch the surface of knowing how good and bad America is.

          Because she’s rich and big, she’s better than the rest. When you’re a bird on top of a carabao you don’t see the filth and the mud below.

        8. “Philippines is heavily corrupt, greed, corruption, impunity and incompetence have become normal there and honor, justice, righteousness, competence and even kindness are rarer than diamonds there…”
          – – – – –
          I can replace “Philippines” and put “America” on that statement and it will still sound right and accurate.

        9. Only delusional people will believe that USA is more corrupt than Philippines because corruption perceptions index is very clear on that. Philippines is near bottom while USA is still has a good standing.

          @Juan Luna Replace the Philippines with America in my statement? Dude, I’ve been to USA for a long vacation and many people there are a lot kinder and more disciplined than many people in Philippines, even Filipinos living in the USA are also attesting to that. Even in the internet, more Americans are better and kinder than people from your country. America being heavily corrupt where incompetence have become normal there is the biggest joke I’ve ever heard. Are you saying that Philippines is less corrupt and more competent thsn the USA? Philippines is a poor third world country so how can it be less corrupt and more competent? Look how most drivers drive in the Philippines, only very few people obey laws, many can’t even obey simple laws. By the way, do you know that a certain chess grandmaster migrated to the USA because he didn’t get the support he deserves in the Philippines?

          Also, try to read this, this is also why I believe that kindness, discipline, honor, justice and respect are rare as diamonds in the Philippines.

          https://www.getrealphilippines.com/2015/05/why-i-am-not-proud-to-be-filipino/

        10. “… I’ve been to USA for a long vacation…” – No Data
          – – – – –
          I know! That is why I’ve been saying you’re not the carabao, you’re the bird. You don’t get your feet to mud, flies don’t fester you, you don’t get to see the worst, you don’t know shit.

          You just enjoy the view atop and think that is the entire goody, goody world.

        11. “…many people there are a lot kinder and more disciplined…”
          – – – – –
          Yeah, like there’s no attacks against Asian people happening there. The police are terrific, no homelessness, no addicts and the KKK are on their best behavior. What else, the policies are stable, the democracy tight. Lots of angels in the good ‘ol USA!

          For a foreigner like you, I say, you either don’t go out to confront reality and read the papers or have not gotten fast your bedazzlement of America.

        12. “You don’t know shit.”

          You’re resorting to ad hominem now? You’re not studying shit. You talk like there are no racism in the Philippines too, do you know how they discriminate the Chinese people there? The attacks against Asian are rarer than media shows, same with police abuses. In the US, many policemen are still doing their jobs. I feel safer with US policemen than Philippine policemen. Why are you even angry? If you’re angry, then just get the hell out of here.

        13. “Even in the internet, more Americans are better and kinder than people from your country.” – No Data
          
- – – – –
          Really? How ‘bout those facts that are not in the ‘internet’? What is your basis in saying that? Is discrimination worst in the Philippines than the US? Are the blacks being treated fairly and equally there? How ‘bout the gays and lesbians, etc.? Better and kinder people don’t shoot and kill other better and kinder people on a regular basis like in the US of A. Assassinations, murders and killings there are like weather, it’s reported every F-ing day!

        14. “You talk like there are no racism in the Philippines too, do you know how they discriminate the Chinese people there?”
          – – – – –
          Unlike you, I have not claimed nor declare anything yet. All I’m doing is disputing your misleading and bias assumption of my country against your adopted country. Of course, there is racism everywhere. That is the reason why I throw that issue in your face because you seem to have forgotten how worse it is in your adopted country.

          “The attacks against Asian are rarer than media shows, same with police abuses.”
          – – – – –
          We call that in Tagalog “palusot”. On your adopted language, it means you are diverting, evading and ducking the issue. Frequent or not, it exists not one time, two time but frequently!

          “In the US, many policemen are still doing their jobs. I feel safer with US policemen than Philippine policemen. Why are you even angry? If you’re angry, then just get the hell out of here.”
          – – – – –
          Angry me? No, you just don’t know me specially when I’m enjoying something. And that’s how I feel right now.

          Of course there are bad eggs everywhere and policemen, contrary to what you are espousing, are not saints. They, too, are humans and videos are proof of that. Lots of videos showing US policemen doing “something” wrong against civilians.

          So you see, you are really, really wrong in depicting how good the US is and how bad other countries compared to her.

        15. So? What’s the difference? Racism is racism and the Visayan people also get discriminated by people in Metro Manila.

          My personal experience in the USA invalidates your points. USA is a lot better than Philippines is. Like I said, CPI proves that the US is a lot cleaner than the Philippines. Philippines is at 117 while China is at 66 now so China is even less corrupt than Philippines despite not being a democratic country.

          You know what else? Philippines is also a country with hypocrisy and double standards. Look how many people there laugh at the Ukrainians in comments about the war because they have a comedian as their president while those same people laughing at the Ukrainians vote for people mostly because of their parents, no wonder political dynasty is impossible to abolish there, not to mention they voted for someone with a pending warrant of arrest in the USA. Voting for someone based on their last names is just as bad as voting for an actor or comedian.

          I haven’t seen any proof that Philippines is better and less corrupt than the USA. Oh and by the way, did you even read the article I said in my previous comment?

        16. @ChinoF your excuse is that many of the corruption methods you have there are learned from the US? Even if it’s true, then it’s still your country’s fault because why would your country do what is wrong or commit acts of corruption? Your country had its chance to be great but it was wasted, thrown away. Vietnam was worse than Philippines during Vietnam War but now, it is a better country than yours so there’s no excuse for Philippines’ failure.

        17. “Oh and by the way, did you even read the article I said in my previous comment?”
          – – – – –
          Yup! The author of that article just forgot to take his medication when he posted that. So, you got a bias, self-serving, click-bait and unreliable viewpoint that just suits your taste.

        18. Is it bad to badmouth the country which made me and people suffer a lot due to rampant corruption? No, it’s better than praising it. How can anyone love a country which makes people suffer by stealing lots of money from them?

          “We call that in the vernacular, mayabang, hambog at mahangin,”

          “the author just forgot to take his medication when he posted that” when are you gonna stop using ad hominem?

          Also, benign0 used to say “there’s no tagalog word for efficiency” and I understand why. I disagree with lots of his views but I don’t resort to personal insults against him.

          There really is no proof that Philippines is better than the USA. If there are hypocrisies and double standards in less corrupt countries, it’s not as rampant as in the Philippines.

          Try reading this article too.

          https://www.getrealphilippines.com/2016/03/migrate-now-government-inefficiency-philippines-chokes-entrepreneurship/

          A solid proof of incompetence and laziness in the Philippines is the gov’t’s favorite which is coding scheme. Taxes are also high in the Philippines which match cost of living there with 1st world countries’ cost of living while the salaries are still horrendously low. Only corrupt and oppressive politicians and tycoons enjoy living in that country. Read this too, Philippines is always and I think it will always be a sick man of Asia if major changes don’t happen.

          https://www.getrealphilippines.com/2021/03/philippines-the-sick-man-of-asia-again-no-it-always-has-been-sick/

          About badmouth a highly corrupt 3rd world country, why should I respect such bad country? Is there any reason to do so?

        19. Is it bad to badmouth the country which made me and people suffer a lot due to rampant corruption? – No Data
          – – – – –
          Yes, because you do not understand what you’re talking about. The country did not make you suffer, the people did. The country has nothing to do with corruption the people committed.

          And you have to be clear on the reason why you suffered. Have you done the right thing and still got screwed or you are just plain lazy and expects too much from the country? We don’t know because you didn’t bother tell why you hate your former country and why you suck up with your adopted country just because your life took a positive turn there.

        20. How can anyone love a country which makes people suffer by stealing lots of money from them? – No Data
          – – – – –
          See your logic there? You are trying to make it appear that the country stole money from its people. Literally, what you are saying doesn’t make sense.

          Also, benign0 used to say “there’s no tagalog word for efficiency” and I understand why.
          – – – – –
          No, you don’t. Efficiency in Tagalog is “kahusayan”.

          There really is no proof that Philippines is better than the USA. If there are hypocrisies and double standards in less corrupt countries, it’s not as rampant as in the Philippines.
          – – – – –
          You will never find proof that the country is better than the US. Why? Because you are blind to it. Look how you generalize to the point that you condemned even your ancestors by saying those negative things about the country.

        21. “…I think it will always be a sick man of Asia if major changes don’t happen.” – No Data
          – – – – –
          Major changes like what?

          “…why should I respect such bad country? Is there any reason to do so?” – No Data
          – – – – –
          Yes, there is a reason. Aside being from the country, you should respect it because you are an educated and civilized person and you know what is right and wrong; that you are decent person and you understand the struggle of people in countries such as the Philippines where the challenges are enormous. That you don’t hate and resort to prejudice just because you see the other side as dirty, weak and destitute.

          In other words, you respect the realities in life because you, too, is a human being with all the frailties, weaknesses and imperfections just like the rest of us.

          I think that’s my final word on the issue. It’s your turn now for the last word.

          Just be nice, please.

        22. No proof that USA is better than Philippines? Look around you, many Filipinos migrate to the USA. A certain Fil-Am chess grandmaster(won’t mention his name here) didn’t get the support he deserves from the Philippine gov’t so guess what, the US gov’t gave him the support he deserves and he became a US citizen and he’s representing the USA now. Look how high taxes in the Philippines. Some news reports even claim that Metro Manila is the 2nd most expensive city to live in Asia, only behind Singapore but unlike Philippines, Singapore’s quality of life is actually excellent and Singapore is actually a very beautiful and safe country, unlike Philippines.

          In a country where respect, discipline, kindness, honor and obedience to laws are rarer than diamonds, it doesn’t deserve any of my respect.

          You’re telling me to be nice while you’re the one using bad words like shit and resorting to ad hominem? Why do you want me to be nice after that? You’re too proud to admit that Philippines is a bad country, very bad compared to the USA. At least taxes in the USA are spent for the good of the country like the military which keeps the country safe. Taxes in Philippines rivals taxes in the US but why is Philippines still a horrendous third world country it is now? Imagine, salaries there are low while gadgets, electronics, electricity, internet and cars are a lot more expensive than in the USA, that’s very corrupt and too unfair.

        23. Whatever you argue about here, what’s tearing apart the US now from the inside is the Neo-Marxist movements like Critical Race Theory, Queer Theory (Drag Queen story hour), critical pedagogy, social-emotional learning and all that stuff I mentioned in that earlier article about Hegel. Anything in US education coming from Kimberle Crenshaw, Paulo Freire, Herbert Marcuse, Henry Giroux, Angela Davis, Gayle Rubin, etc. It might worse than any corruption you’ll see. I hope the Philippines holds out against those, although we have the Mao-inspired commies already.

      2. “Philippines is also a country with hypocrisy and double standards.” – No Data
        – – – – –
        And what country is hypocrisy and double standard-free? Can you name one?

        “I haven’t seen any proof that Philippines is better and less corrupt than the USA.” – No Date
        – – – – –
        If you see one I doubt if you will admit it. Your mind is locked and your eyes are blind. For you, your adopted country is better than anyone else. That’s your right. Could be that in your own country you are a nobody and didn’t reach your potential because of lack of opportunity.. So, given the chance to have a better life in another country, I don’t blame you for loving the country you just sneaked-in.

        I just don’t like people who bad-mouth their own country because they have become a refugee of another one.

        We call that in the vernacular, mayabang, hambog at mahangin,

    2. Renal disease ousted marcos.

      Not the faggot cardinali, not the clown corazoni, not the phony manila people’s alay lakad stroll on edsa avenue

      1. Renal disease is one of only many factors the Americans were looking at to get rid of Marcos. I’ve heard that if ever he perished in office Virata was to take over.

  1. How Marcos was ousted is irrelevant to the state-of-affairs today. The new constitution provided for a number of things that look good on paper, but were ill thought out. First thing that comes to mind was Agrarian Reform. The Aquino “administration” did exactly what any good communist regime would do and gave all the huge factory farms to the workers or tenants without any thought given to how tiny farms, which would get even tinier generation by generation, could possibly feed the nation, let alone those small farmers with no access to machinery and fertilizers etc. Not only that, but Aquino conveniently exempted her own vast holdings in Tarlac from the order. That led to the eventual Hacienda Luisita Massacre.

    1. @Jerry Lynch don’t forget the protectionist policies such as the Filipino first policy and the 60:40 foreign business ownership rule. Protectionism also made Philippines fail. The late Lee Kuan Yew stressed the importance of free trade but Philippines won’t listen, many people there still have the mindset of “support local”, some people are even stupid enough to think foreign investment is foreign invasion.

  2. EDSA people’s revolution was a necessary tool at the time. No one’s mind thinking of importance to advance into the future of what would make the Philippines out of this movement other than in 1986 people’s desire to topple President FEM from power because his administration failed to advance the Philippine economy into a first world country in 20 years. In short, he was a failure in economic management with human rights violations and endemic corruptions and massive debts awaiting the next administration. The effect after his ouster, you can make a case out of that, but certainly the time of FEM was a crisis that left a lot of people shook their heads.

    The Philippines was not better in his time in economy most especially. Not to mention the formation of CPP-NPA started in his administration that balloned in thousands of number in his 20-year presidency, which makes a case of his another failure of peace and order. Even some of the top leaders were already incarcerated, they still had numbers in thousands left who were all determined to fight the government at that time.

    FEM was the reason why democracy and the momentum of it was killed and EDSA revolution was the answer to it. He postponed the presidential election in 1972/3 and changed the 1935 constitution to make him stay in power for longer period. In short, he was greedy. He could have changed the 60/40 economic provisions in favor of Filipinos against the foreigners enshrined in 1935 constitution in his 1973 constitution but he did not. Yes, the 60/40 protectionist policy started in 1935 constitution as some others blaming only the 1987 constitution. As to why democracy was important? It’s not about Filipinos not being discipline or responsible in their freedom, but most importantly the Philippines was and still a signatory to the ratification of the human rights pact initiated by the United Nations after World War II and other UN civil and political rights when FEM was in power. And to dishonor this commitment, and in making the Philippines a laughingstock with human rights protection being shutdown in his time, the Philippines should have withdrawn long time ago from UN. Same with the case of Duterte’s presidency when he lambasted human rights watchers in his presidency.

    1. @Jason the problem is the EDSA Revolution 1 didn’t solve the high corruption problem because the revolutionary gov’t after EDSA 1 proved to be just as corrupt, if not more, as FEM’s gov’t, not to mention Cory double crossed Doy Laurel when she promised him that she will make him the prime minister after Marcos was ousted but she abolished the parliament which nullified his prime minister position and she broke her promise to redistribute the lands of Hacienda Luisita to its farmers. Cory also have her fair share of human rights violations such as Mendiola Massacre. Both FEM and Cory are just as bad as each other.

      1. There’s no denial that corruption is an issue in every organized government since the Spaniards time but FEM corruption issue is different and had been compounded for his long years in power. That issue will be traced back from him directly and his direct family which ripened into Supreme Court decisions proving in several cases his and his family’s ill-gotten wealth in billions of pesos recovered by the government decades after his ouster. Cory’s government might be corrupt but her role was to restore the democracy and the government that is ruled and represented by the will of the people and for the people, in line with the Philippines commitment to international laws and the contract of honoring those laws. That’s why the 1987 constitution was designed to safeguard the rights of people through the policies and provisions that are pro-people and pro democracy with a separation and equal check and balance of different branches of government.

        As to the abolishing of parliament, it was meant not to have concentration of powers in one person, as what happened in 1973 constitution where FEM dictated and spearheaded all the branches of government by his own will almost without limit. Laurel did indeed become prime minister for a short time, but him running with Cory as her vice-president under the same party under the 1987 constitution already resolved the issue.

        As to human rights issue of hacienda luisita massacre, there were things uncontrolled by Cory at the time, but her actions and decision after that would prove to be decisive and will speak for themselves whether she tolerated that massacre or not, but know that there were cases already filed in court and it is up to the court to resolve that based on laws. That distribution of lands would not be done overnight. That would go through tedious cases and time consuming in court battle. That I believe was already resolved during Duterte’s time through Supreme Court decision primarily based on Cory’s 1987 constitution.

        1. Yes, it brought back democracy but it spawned a new problem too. Many people there think democracy gives them the right to do whatever they want without consequences even if they break the law, many of them can’t even obey simple laws which is annoying.

          Regardless, Cory still broke her promise to Doy Laurel since she nullified his prime minister position. Cory even sued Beltran for libel just because he said that she hid under her bed during a coup. Talk about being sensitive. Good thing the court of appeals reversed his conviction and acquitted him. Also, Cory had the right to cancel FEM’s death because she was a revolutionary president so she can proclaim those debts as odious debts. EDSA 1 was disappointing for not heavily reducing corruption. Democratic or not, the corruption is still rampant.

      2. Regardless if many people breaking the law, the important thing is democracy is being observed and our civil and political rights are exercised properly because that’s what the Philippines ratified before the United Nations along with many countries who made promises to commit to uphold the rule of law and protect the civil and political rights of every person regardless of race, gender, religion and age. We honor that seriously and the product of that is the inspiration in the creation of the 1987 constitution through transformation and incorporation of international laws to become part of local laws of the land.

        We should not be worried and thinking much if some people are abusing their rights because it is beyond our control. We will do our part as a good citizen, perhaps we can reprimand them or ask the law enforcement authorities to do something in implementing the laws against them, but if they will not, then let’s leave them at that and find a way not to get into trouble. There are things we cannot control, we cannot control what others are thinking, we cannot even control the actions and decisions of our family and even our children. So to worry much about the strangers breaking the law, as I said it’s beyond our control and we should be carried too much on others’ actions so long as they did not abuse our rights and freedom. It expected that every part of the world there is always that abuse of rights and freedom, not only in the Philippines, even first world countries are having it.

        To summarize, I like the freedom and rights being restored and enjoyed by the Filipinos in general after the dictatorship of FEM. At least our freedom of expression and movement are restored and protected with limitations under the bounds of law.

        1. The missing part of democracy is fair and just implementation of the law. All lawbreakers should be punished. There are lawbreakers in all countries but the problem is in Philippines, many people break the law without consequences. Look how most people there drive, no consideration, no respect and they think traffic laws are suggestions, they break traffic laws for convenience sake. Without punishment for lawbreakers, democracy is in danger. Is this the result of the EDSA Revolution? Many people think democracy is anarchy. Besides, corruption should be eliminated. It’s easy not to be corrupt and greedy while many people are still corrupt. Not stealing money and not resorting to bribes are very easy.

        2. Look how most people there drive, no consideration, no respect and they think traffic laws are suggestions, they break traffic laws for convenience sake. Without punishment for lawbreakers, democracy is in danger. – No Data
          – – – – –
          Whoa, that’s scary! We’re going to lose our democracy because traffic laws are being violated! Really? Do you really believe our democracy is threatened because of the traffic problem?

          Why don’t you come up with suggestions for a change? Why always be negative about everything against the land of your birth? Were you brainwashed by the good life in the USA that you look down on the country and your fellow Filipinos with superiority complex?

          I say, be thankful that you are in a good place now. Don’t use your blessings as an instrument of hate to get back and exact vengeance just because you had an unfortunate life in the country where you were born.

          Be positive, be hopeful that things will change for the better.

  3. Those problems you mentioned they are expected in 3rd world country like the Philippines. Let people think and fetch for themselves until we evolve into matured ones. I know this is not gonna happen soon especially in the conduct of recently concluded national elections where people chose famous names and familiar personalities rather substance, track record, and platforms. Under the leadership of BBM, I doubt if there’s big positive changes that’s gonna happen for the Philippines in the future as he is a product of not of hardwork in getting into the top but of family’s famous tainted name. Just recently, we have all the news about the inflation, corruption, incompetence, swelling debts, high unemployment rate, and the ever undying eating of “pagpag” by most of pinoys poorest of the poor among others. Our country is heading into a dangerous path if these problems not gonna be solved by this administration soon.

    1. Great comment.
      The country is in for tough times ahead (not that the past 40 years have not been tough).
      Nepotism will never ever work, throughout history I believe this has shown to be he case (in countries or business), yet the laws in the Philippines are currently being written by a very small number of families, and almost every province/city has a few family political clans who control the political makeup of the town.
      One day I hope the people of the country will wake up, I have a feeling Rodrigo Duterte was the anomaly, and the next great leader to emerge will lose to a Marcos or Duterte or Aquino or Garcia or Macapagal or whatever other big family name has enough influence.

      To change a Martin Luther King Jr quote, “I have a dream that one day… in The Philippines…… our politicians will not be judged their last name, but by the content of their character”

      Let’s truly hope for that, but I just don’t see it happening. And I definitely don’t have the answer. I just hope more people listen to the rapper J Mara (his song wala especially) and maybe that might inspire a little change.

  4. What separates BBM from a rah! rah! boy of the Yellows and from an unwanted Filipino KSP to the First World?

    BBM in his inaugural speech declared, “You will get no excuses from me!”

    Jason, true to form, being the rabid cheerleader from the yellow camp, despite his admission of the yellow administration’s corruption, huge debt borrowing, human-rights atrocities, violations of the rule of law, zero achievement in economic development and nation-building, plus over-all lack of foresight for the country to progress his excuses in behalf of his beloved Yellows are aplenty.

    No Data, a singular disciple to mentor Gogs, like an empty can just especializes in being routinely loud in pointing out what’s wrong about in everything he disagrees with being a Filipino. He is frustrated and desperate for the acceptance of the First World as a world citizen despite having no contributory value to them. Identifying with the First World, he thinks, puts him at a higher class, right? What do everyone think?

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