Corona impeachment: Prosecution unprepared to follow the rules

Politics in the Philippines is in a big mess thanks to President Noynoy Aquino (PNoy). Because of his singular desire to get rid of people he perceives to be getting in the way as he pursues his presidential “agendas”, the Filipino people have become somewhat paralyzed and confused about their social and moral obligations. Through his mouthpieces in the media, PNoy has managed to wreak considerable havoc on the minds of average Filipinos who know very little about the law. As a result, more and more people have become disillusioned with the prospect of ingraining a robust sense of justice in the country.

It’s bad enough that Philippine society is already suffering from a basic lack of an ethic of trust. Now the situation has gotten worse because PNoy has further damaged the credibility of the people running the country’s institutions. As a result of PNoy’s relentless pursuit of his own idea of how to achieve “transparency” — which is to shame those who do not agree with his views – some Filipinos find it even harder to trust anybody else but PNoy and his allies and, instead, quickly assume the worst of anybody who disagrees with him. After all, who would dare criticize the son of a so-called “hero” and a “saint”, right? Rather than ingrain a sense of trust in institutions and process in Philippine society, PNoy has only succeeded in further reinforcing the sort of traditional trust that is based on personalities and personal agendas.

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The lack of the right kind of trust in Philippine society is evident in how the seemingly lack of admissible evidence or credible witnesses demonstrated in court so far by the prosecutors in the impeachment trial of Supreme Court Chief Justice Renato Corona is still ignored by his supporters. Even the obvious incompetence of the prosecution team is being presented by the prosecution’s spokespersons as more of an outcome of a ploy by the defense team to delay the proceedings. They actually think that they can fool the viewers of this televised trial. The news of the prosecution’s lack of ability to put things in motion has been documented and recorded by media and bloggers alike.

The prosecution team headed by Congressman Neil Tupas Jr comes across as a bunch of spoiled brats and crybabies when placed side-by-side with their counterparts in the defense camp. They asked for more “flexibility” or a more “liberal” approach to the proceedings despite already having received a lot of help from some of the Senator Judges and even the leader of the defense team, Serafin Cuevas. Since Day One they have shown that they were ill-prepared to present what was supposed to be their much-anticipated “explosive” evidence. For some reason they do not possess the same confidence they project in front of the media when they are in the courtroom. They always cry foul even when the defense team is clarifying or objecting to their ambiguous and even dubious claims.

Congressman Tupas for his part had the nerve to flat out deny that they were not prepared. Senator Miriam Santiago who joined the session after a spending time recuperating from an illness wasn’t at all amused with the prosecution

Santiago then went directly to ask the prosecution and the defense teams about the number of witnesses that they would present in the entire trial.

“Your honor, we will present today [Tuesday] at least seven witnesses,” said the chief prosecutor, Iloilo Representative Niel Tupas Jr.

“For today? But for the totality of the trial period, how many do you intend to present?” asked Santiago.

And when Tupas could not immediately give an answer and started shaking his head, an irate senator said, “And don’t shake your head at me. You should have known, you should even have a trial brief.”

“So what? What’s the answer, how many witnesses do you intend to present? Do you have any idea?” said the senator.

“I have to ask your honor”¦” Tupas said but was interrupted by Santiago, “That’s not acceptable. You come to court prepared. You will not waste the time of this court.”

Tupas was not spared from a refresher course from Senate President Juan Ponce Enrile either…

Enrile said a lawyer who does his homework would be confident “because my trial brief would just be in front of me. Any argument that my opponent would present, all the answers are there in my trial brief. Note that when I asked Justice Cuevas about the rules, he would answer immediately. That is the result of constant study.”

In last Tuesday’s hearing, Enrile took the prosecution to task for apparently letting the Christmas furlough go by without consolidating their evidence and witnesses after transmitting the Articles of Impeachment to the Senate, hence Santiago’s outburst.

In court proceedings, you’d expect that it would be more of the defense team who would be asking for more leeway, because presumably the prosecutors would always come prepared for the case for the simple reason that they are the ones who filed the case. Surely they wouldn’t have filed if they did not have any compelling evidence to begin with? But it does seem like they actually don’t.

A lot of people are baffled by how the prosecutors are getting frustrated with having to follow the rules of the court. The prosecution folk are probably the sort of people who are so used to cutting others off in traffic or disobeying rules in general. It seems like following procedures is a totally alien concept to them. Indeed, like what I had said before, there is very little evidence that most Filipinos are capable of living by the “rule of law”. This is because each individual harbors this baseless sense of being more important than everybody else and they tend to put their own interest first before other people. In a nutshell, feeling more important than everybody else is how the prosecutors come across. They probably think that since PNoy is behind them, they should be given more leeway — more special treatment.

Filipinos in general do not appreciate the value of following the law. In a country where everyone seems to think they are always right, it is very important that we treat our constitution as sacred. It should stand out amidst the sea of incoherence. We need to strengthen our institutions because these are our only check and balance against our world-renowned “padrino” system. A weak leader presiding over weak institutions is a bad combination because such a leader will mask his weakness or understanding of the law by acting like he is above the law.

It is wrong for the prosecution team to keep stressing that rules should be more relaxed just to suit them. In fact, in a serious proceeding such as the impeachment of the highest member of the Supreme Court, we need to adhere to the rules as much as possible. The professionalism and perfectionist personalities such as those exhibited by the defense team particularly by Serafin Cuevas, is the correct recipe to applying real justice with regard to the accused.

[Photo courtesy]

71 Replies to “Corona impeachment: Prosecution unprepared to follow the rules”

  1. I love how this article clearly illustrates the prosecution’s traits as sterling examples of a Pinoy’s negative trait of entitlement for special treatment.

    I hope that more pinoys be aware that the real evil in this country is found within ourselves.

    More power!

    1. I hope that more pinoys be aware that the real evil in this country is found within ourselves.

      I hope so too, Fauxx.


  2. I watch the trial just to see Rep. Tupas make a fool of himself in front of a national TV.

    I just hope that the masses would realize that the prosecution spokespersons and lead prosecutor are not really in it for the “truth”. They are just after media mileage or they are trying to mask their own misdeeds.

    Rep. Tanada and Rep. Angara are aspiring senatorial candidates for 2013, Rep. Quimbo wants to save himself from the Pag-Ibig/Globe Asiatique fiasco and Rep. Tupas’ dad is in hot water with the Ombudsman.

    But knowing Philippine mainstream media, they will not let the masses know of this lest they incur the ire of the Palace. And the dumbing down of the Filipino masses will continue.

    1. I just hope that the masses would realize that the prosecution spokespersons and lead prosecutor are not really in it for the “truth”. They are just after media mileage or they are trying to mask their own misdeeds.

      Naku, asa pa. I doubt it. Like I said, the prosecutors sing a different tune when they are being interviewed by the media. They always say that they are winning but the truth is they are more of then not, the cause of the delay.

      1. Blatant lying is the last refuge of the dishonest. It also helps to cover up if some of the media is a vassal of the King in Yellow.

  3. I was just curious, with 188 congressmen signing the articles of impeachment. Weren’t they presented of the evidence first? So they just assumed that the CJ is guilty without the evidence being presented first in the plenary (evidence presented to back the accusations), and that right then and there they signed it? (I’m not a law expert, but being a student parliamentarian myself during college, a deeper discussion must have been done for these articles to actually be passed on to the senate). Now, what is happening? Evidence fishing anyone? ^^

    1. Even assuming that it was a civil court trial not a criminal trial, the complaint should have been more specific in stating the prosecution’s cause, i.e. dates, acts, facts, and people involved, etc.

      The impeachment complaint itself does not even assert that some wrong took place, with words like “allegedly”. No dates, no acts, just a list of “alleged” things that might be wrong, but might not be criminal. Yes, those say fishing expedition.

    2. Some of the congressmen who signed the articles of impeachment confessed that they weren’t allowed to read it…

    3. @JohnF

      It’s so obvious that they did not understand the articles of impeachment because even under close scrutiny during the proceedings it doesn’t even pass the test.

    4. im not so sure~ but i heard that their pork barrel wont be released if they are not going to sign the impeachment complaint~ so mean—

  4. On the contrary, the masses being what they are (and that includes the rich who have minds of squatters), they would rather see it as the lawyers for the defense being too “technical” and “bookish” in “fooling the people”.

  5. I shudder to think what the President will think of doing, or will incite the people to do, should the outcome of these proceedings not be what he wants.

    1. We have to show them: we , the people own the Philippines. Not the Aquino-Cojuangco families…we are 90 million strong…Freedom is not free…you have to fight for it, care for it and nuture it…otherwise, it will be taken away from you by wicked people…so. be vigilant including our people in the AFP, support your people…

    2. He is the son of the People Power icon. It’s in their blood to go stomping their foot out in the streets if they don’t get their way.

    3. Let him, it will show that he is nothing more than a self-serving lawless spoiled brat. Though I admit such incitement will be horrifying but necessary to rip off his masks.

  6. I’ve worked with lawyers in the U.S., for the company that I worked with…you have to have a Deposition First, on both sides…Then, the Judge will determine, if the case has a merit or not…
    The Corona impeachment case, would had been thrown out by any U.S. Court , on the First Day of the Hearing: Due to lack of Merit…
    The Five minutes deliberation in Congress by Congressmen, who were bribed by Noynoy Aquino, is the primary reason…A Drug Mule of Noynoy Aquino and Binay, facing trial in China, would have a better trial, to escape the Lethal Injections of the Chinese…
    I presented this Corona impeachment case to our Trial Lawyers in our corporation. And, I have never heard such laughters…

    1. It is the same thing with us in Europe. We are such a laughing stock, i mean “WE” the people are quite known to be exact and intelligent. How’s can such nonsense allegations and witch-hunting happens. Really Shameful …

      1. Easy fix:
        1. Apply for citizenship to country of choice.
        2. Do a skin pigmentation surgery.
        3. Call yourself anything but Filipino.

    2. Well you know how it is here in the Philippines, hearsay and shaky evidence is the same as reliable evidence.

      Truth be told they want Corona out of the picture even if they have to use half-truths, distortions and outright-lies. It really shows that the Yellow cabal has no ethics of any sorts.

  7. If the trial didn’t go in Pnoy’s way, he would brand the senators as hindrance to his “daang matuwid” and supporters of GMA AND Corona. Then he would rally his zombies for a people power to pressure his enemies. Just as what he said that If he didn’t win the election he would incite another people power because if he didn’t win that means an election fraud had happened.

  8. What is the very purpose of this impeachment? To remove Corona and to save Hacienda, that’s all. Its a mess indeed, look at whats happening now…

    1. Hmmmmm, now that you mention it Vincenzo the Yellow advocate has not been heard for some time now, guess he’s got nothing to defend his King in Yellow and his Yellow cabal.

      (By the way the term “King in Yellow” refers to an eldritch abomination that is part of the Cthulhu mythos. for some reason it fits Pnoy who wears a “mask” to hide true face.)

      1. I guess the retard vincenzo has finally run out of retarded things to say here since his bungling prosecutors are losing the fight.

        I hope the defense team keeps up the good work in exposing the weakness of the complaint against CJ Corona.

  9. with a lack of ability, integrity or evidence there will now be an all out attack on coronas family to try and force a resignation and quick resolution.
    p-noy and hacienda luisita cant wait.

    1. I don’t think corona would succumb to the yellow army’s desperate attempt to force him to resign.

      I hope the corona defense team successfully links PNoy to the impeachment trial so that PNoy will also have to face impeachment.

  10. I hate the prosecution’s claim of “representing the people” and their cry for the so called “truth”. Among us Filipinos I believe that only the Noynoy fanatics support the ousting of the chief justice. The prosecution acts like they’re fighting a valid cause for the people when they are actually just being used by Noynoy as pawns.

    I’m not a fan of CJ Corona but I don’t hate him either. I believe that he did his job in accordance with the constitution. The one that should be hated are those in office but do not perform. Need not go far. The best example is Pnoy + 188.

    1. The 188 henchmen of aquino should also disclose their SALN to the public if they claim to be cleaner than CJ Corona.

      Aquino should also disclose his SALN to the public if he claims to be not corrupt.

      1. Nagmamalinis ang mga congressmen. Tsk tsk

        Who ever is without sin cast the first stone. Even when said, these animals will still cast stones.

    2. Tongressmen who were bought by the dictator to do his bidding do not represent the people. They are political mercenaries who represent one man and his private hidden agendas. No… the sovereign people is not the boss.

  11. a doctor earns 10 million pesos a year but declares via the alphalist scam/system 700,000 and pays only 70,000 tax a year.
    the media have not picked up on this aspect of systemic corruption which would benefit the whole country if managed – but they are under the same system and nobody wants to change the cosy status quo.
    autocracy + monopoly = wholesale corruption
    no wonder they keep so much secret from the masses.

    1. @jay, No wonder the media keep on harping their Credibility, trustworthiness etc blah blah. Birds of the same feather are the birds.

    1. Not just split mind, but split standards as well. When it is his cabal he turns a blind eye to their mistakes, but when it involves others his so-called righteous fury against that person goes up to the eleven.

      Beware, the King in Yellow may have an unstable mind…..oh what the heck he DOES have an unstable mind.

  12. the big plan/strategy of the prosecution is to have a vote after article 2 and then if convicted never need to raise the other 7 or give the defence the chance to present. trial over. secrets safe.
    article 2 is all or nothing for the defence, and p-noy. the other 7 are moot at best but insufficient for conviction.

  13. sinungaling talaga itong si tupas…hindi raw nag release ng ITR..saan kaya nakuha ng mga spokesmen nila ung figures na pinakita nila sa TV everytime meron sila press conference

  14. some things are clear
    the quality of education in the law in the philippines is abysmal. as harvard i am appalled.
    the knowledge of the law amongst senators is non existent – 1/2 exceptions
    even common sense is lacking.
    dont disgrace yourselves and the country – it only confirms ‘ the jungle bunny ‘ image
    what do you think senator lapid – oh sorry you only know about money laundering

  15. Hindi talaga kasingtanga si Penoy gaya ng inaasahan ng marami. Napakahusay ba talAga magmanipulate o engot lang talaga ang mga patuloy na naniniwala sa mga dilaw na yun? Kitang-kita kung gaano nagmukhang gago sina Tupas simula nung unang araw ng impeachment. Palibhasa may mga plano na namang kaguluhan at protesta kuno pag naabswelto si CJ sa salang di naman niya ginawa. Mapapag-initan malamang sina Miriam at Manong Johnny ng Yellow King.

  16. The prosecution got what they wanted in the end, which is for Henares to show that Corona’s salary is disproportionate to his properties. We have to keep in mind that public opinion is significant in the outcome of this impeachment, and this can easily sway the average Filipino into believing that Corona should be rightfully removed from office.

    This was, of course, at the expense of the prosecution being deemed as incompetent.

    1. The defense isn’t beaten yet.
      The prosecution still has to deal with the stronger defense and also has to convince the senator judges if Corona should be removed or not and chances are that they will fail miserably at doing so.

  17. @Cams

    This was, of course, at the expense of the prosecution being deemed as incompetent.

    “Competent” in vilifying sworn enemies perhaps, which should be easy especially with their vast moneyed resource and hold on media, and with the kind of viewers &/or audience willing to feed on their trash, but not fixing problems in an economy far simpler than those of other countries or simply creating a level-playing field—no not by giving preferential treatment to clan or KKKs.

    If a public official could be impeached simply on the basis of whatever improprieties they could find in his or her family or relatives, then I’d say a lot of them, including AbNoy are impeachable themselves.

    1. You took the words out of my mouth. Well said.

      ““Competent” in vilifying sworn enemies perhaps, which should be easy especially with their vast moneyed resource and hold on media, and with the kind of viewers &/or audience willing to feed on their trash…”

  18. We have to help the Senate reassert its power, and help also the Judiciary reassert its power…only by this, we can prevent the USURPATION of any President, on the two other branches of gevernment…Diminish the Power of the Presidency, in their power to allocate Pork Barrel Funds…This Pork Barrel Fund was used by Noynoy Aquino to buy Congressmen in Congress.
    The Senate must impose its Rules of Court…cite anybody not following the Rules for Contempt Court…order the Senate Marshalls to arrest them, and JAIL them…only by this your can impose order of the Court, and move on in the impeachment proceedings…Senators must order both panels to move on…

  19. Sadly, the consequences of this impeachment, which turns out to be a capricious whim of the President, are not being considered by this administration.

    There is no doubt that our system, including the judicial, could use a lot of reforms, but I don’t see this impeachment as helping the institutions but rather hurting it, especially in the public perception. The solution is to reform and strengthen the democratic institutions wisely suggested my 2010 presidential candidate, who sadly lost to his cousin, this nincompoop, who has done just the opposite. It is not in replacing Corona or any high officials.

    That fact that we have already “people powered Marcos,” impeached Erap, impeached the CJ (who I think does not deserve it) says that there we have not put more safeguards and guarantees that will prevent officials from erring before they get to the level of impeachment.

    I like how the author, Ilda, pointed out the culture that affects us. We are all guilty of using connections in government to get special treatment, and we shameless about it. That feeds into the culture that was mentioned, the arrogant thinking “I am above the law.” Thank you for that enlightening point.

    1. We, the people, must impose the reforms…do not wait for your political leader to reform…because, they will not…look at how stagnant we are?
      We have also to reassert our power (not like FAKE EDSA People’s power).But, true power coming from the people, serving us; not serving any family with hidden agendas…

    2. Seriously do you really think that the King in Yellow and his cabal would really consider the consequences? You’d be surprise to know that many people use the “X at any cost” formula.

      And there’s also the fact that the yellow zombies think that he could do no wrong and that any action he takes is for their own good.

  20. @ Felipe,

    “If a public official could be impeached simply on the basis of whatever improprieties…”

    Let us disabuse our minds that the charges against former President GMA for election sabotage and plunder/graft & corruption; and impeachment of the SC CJ Corona are petty.

    The Philippine Constitution considers these as high crimes, almost like treason, that is why the major State branches of House of Representatives and Senate are involved.

    The charges impugn the very essence of the social contract of the leaders with the people.

    Indeed, material concerns about the economy are trivial pursuits in comparison.

      1. @JCC

        Coming from a disbarred lawyer, there’s truly much hubris in your statement. But let me humor you:

        Section 1. Public office is a public trust. Public officers and employees must, at all times, be accountable to the people, serve them with utmost responsibility, integrity, loyalty, and efficiency; act with patriotism and justice, and lead modest lives.
        Section 2. The President, the Vice-President, the Members of the Supreme Court, the Members of the Constitutional Commissions, and the Ombudsman may be removed from office on impeachment for, and conviction of, culpable violation of the Constitution, treason, bribery, graft and corruption, other high crimes, or betrayal of public trust. All other public officers and employees may be removed from office as provided by law, but not by impeachment.


        The 1987 Philippine Constitution says the grounds for impeachment include culpable violation of the Constitution, bribery, graft and corruption, and betrayal of public trust. These offenses are considered “high crimes and misdemeanors” under the Philippine Constitution.
        The President, Vice President, Supreme Court justices, and members of the Constitutional Commission and Ombudsman are all considered impeachable officials under the Constitution.

        Companero, I’d rather trust my own interpretation of the Constitution than rely on the say-so of a disbarred lawyer.

        One word: Super Kalan.

        1. phil manila, benigno;

          your replies are full of malice.

          if you go to the website of the Supreme Court and look for the names of registered lawyers under the Roll of Attorneys, you will still see the name JOSE C. CAMANO, Sagnay, Camarines Sur, admitted to the BAR 1979. Disbarred lawyers are stricken off from the roster. but i give you that privilege of opening up your mouth without checking your facts — that’s where you excel anyway. 🙂

        2. @jcc, what made you think I was referring to or had any knowledge about anything to do with your supposed disbarment? It is actually news to me that something of that sort would be associated with you.

          Being a real lawyer has nothing to do with passing the bar or having a license to practice. That’s where I was coming from. 😉

        3. @ JCC,

          Ano daw?

          I just quoted you the Articles/paragraphs in the 1987 Philippine Constitution and you say I got from Wikipedia. Don’t you even read before you respond?

          Indeed, you remind of that prosecutor, Attorney Lim, who objects before even knowing what he is objecting too. A total embarrassment for Philippine trial lawyers!

          I think that’s the problem with many lawyers in the Philippines. They just love to listen to themselves and in the process, they get lost in their own arguments.

          But, you JCC have another problem. You think that you’re the only who can understand the Constitution.
          Too much hubris on your part.

          Ang yabang mo!

        4. that goes with you phil… you read only your own hubris..

          the text of the constitutions contain annotations from the framers and from subsequentlegal scholars who compiled hundred years of interpretations made thereon by the courts. the text will give you only so much, panyero… try getting out from your tunnel panyero… or get out from wikipedia.. better still read my post on the matter. it is well-researched and it is not hubris. 🙂

          BTW, you still consider me disbarred?

    1. @Phil

      This is the full quote (with proper emphasis on the boldface text which is particularly important to the sense and context of the message, and which you’ve freely ommitted), thus:

      If a public official could be impeached simply on the basis of whatever improprieties they could find in his or her family or relatives, then I’d say a lot of them, including AbNoy are impeachable themselves.

      In other words, if the offense were even mass murder (non-trivial), but involves someone else, whether family or relative (e.g. daughter, wife, son, etc), and not the official him/herself committing the crime, said official cannot be liable to (or, in our case, impeached by) it. If that were so, then AbNoy and his minions should have to be similarly impeached on that basis alone—And especially AbNoy, as he continues to be not only an obstruction to justice but also an accomplice to a serious injustice involving his clan.—All that while, at the same time, he so far have demonstrated incompetence and perhaps lesser (or lack of) zealousness in regards to the economy, the improvement of which, would prevent many from living a life of crime and dishonesty, not to mention—corruption!

      Here’s rather how I see our society…

      You can chase all the crooks you want for the rest of your life and with all vigor, but with little or no other means available to lift themselves up from a life of unnecessary hardship, then they are bound to find “unorthodox” means of doing so. The natural tendency of man is towards self-preservation…

      Positive reinforcement or “solutions” trump negative reinforcement or “threats.” Try running a restaurant or hotel with employees hardly making ends meet. You can provide all the role-model leadership you want, but if you don’t provide opportunities to lift themselves up, you can just see how easy it would be for them to give in to temptations—some dishonesty like stealing bits of food, supplies, or wares here and there. Now even if there were enough for that particular employee’s personal needs, consider their respective pinoy families, where the rest are trying to eck it out under those harsh conditions. The weaker ones would likely end up somewhat dependent—Suddenly, given our close-knit relationships and its attendant expectations, things aren’t enough. Under pressure, people tend to relax not only their morals but also even their ability to resist acts to commit simple infractions. How easy this ‘growing disregard for the law’ tends to degenerate into a lifestyle and mindset—on a large scale, it now becomes a cultural malaise!—Pinoys are not perpetual 5 yr olds. They don’t need adult supervision all their life. They don’t really need role-examples to know right from wrong. Those pointing to simply lack of leadership are just making excuses. Now the more savvy of them—those who tend to look ahead in the future, would provide means to spare their children from these same conditions even to the point of overdoing or overcompensating for it. (e.g. I know parents who would steal just to bring their kids to the best schools and spare them from the life these parents had to live).

      Have you heard the line “It’s the economy, stupid!” ? What is lacking is the realization that the reverse is also true (perhaps even more so) “Kung walang mahirap, walang corrupt!” As long as lack of opportunities is a looming threat to us, it’s going to be the law of the jungle—i.e. survival-of-the-fittest!

      (Stop that graver injustice. Give what belongs to the farmers and the people!).

      1. “As long as lack of opportunities is a looming threat to us, it’s going to be the law of the jungle…” – Felipe

        Precisely. Even if the government stimulates economic growth (creates opportunities), the political and economic elites, especially the bad, will just ‘game the system,’ if there are no interventions to prevent graft and corruption.

        The bigger economic pie will just be divided to give bigger slices to the big and powerful. The people at the bottom of the food chain will have to fight for the crumbs.

        Kailangan talagang may ma-sampolan: na kapag bad ka, lagot ka!

        It is hoped that the anti-corruption efforts will produce a more enlightened elite and empowered middle class.

        1. “The bigger economic pie will just be divided to give bigger slices to the big and powerful. The people at the bottom of the food chain will have to fight for the crumbs.”

          “It is hoped that the anti-corruption efforts will produce a more enlightened elite and empowered middle class.”

          Or is it the other way around? How can you produce a more enlightened middle class without invoking sound economic policies, or economic progress first, for that matter? Or better yet, how would you empower and already empowered middle class that is disproportionately small in comparison to the masses which can be manipulated by oligarchs?

          From your posts above, you seriously underestimate the scope of economics in a society, bro. Do you know what all this is about? Why are we even talking about topics in blogs and forums such as these? Simple, ours is a case of economic development gone terribly wrong. Would we all be here discussing about such things if it were not the case?

        2. correction:

          “Or better yet, how would you empower and already empowered middle class that is disproportionately small in comparison to the masses which can be manipulated by oligarchs?”

          *AN already-empowered

        3. @Phil

          Kailangan talagang may ma-sampolan: na kapag bad ka, lagot ka!

          This is why they have to work harder on the HL case. It’s the more insidious.

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