Memories of a Civil War

Kirk was already in late-twenties when he got into the mainstream of the so-called national democratic movement initiated by Jose Maria Sison. From the ranks of mass activists, he was elevated to candidate membership in the Communist Party of the Philippines and after a few months in that status became full-fledged party member. The chaos within the party resulting from the sudden declaration of martial law on September 22, 1972 saw him getting separated from his party unit, but he went on organizing among workers on a self-style basis in which he advocated a review of the Sison strategy of protracted people’s war which he saw inappropriate to the concrete Philippine condition. Forced to surface from his underground revolutionary work, he pursued his writing craft and became successful at screenwriting, subsequently at film direction. Beginning 1977 when he won a best screenplay award in the Metro Manila Film Festival, old acquaintances in the revolutionary movement began gravitating around him, which would shortly siphon him back into the fight, so to speak. He found himself sitting with a group that called itself IL (for International Liaison) which the polio-stricken political officer heading it loved to call “the most powerful commission in the Party central committee, next to the military commission”. Eventually a former co-member in a party group in the workers sector led him to then sitting Chairman of the CPP, Rodolfo Salas alias Kumander Bilog, also the head of the Military Commission. After a while of performing tasks under the N2 (Intelligence) of the General Command of the New People’s Army, he was appointed head of the Special Intelligence Unit subordinate only to the General Command and directly responsible to it. He was in that position when the EDSA crisis erupted. The following are his recollections of those circumstances.

* * *

The days into February 1986 were a period of chaos among responsible cadres of the Communist Party of the Philippines – to be precise, of the lower-level cadres. Compartmentalization in the Party made it impossible for a member of a unit to know what’s going in the other units, much more in the higher organs. Party directives were disseminated through policy papers and the Party organ, Ang Bayan. Once these directives were passed down to the mass level, that’s when matters were discussed on a mass scale. The issue during that period was: Would the movement participate in the coming snap presidential election.

marcos_snap_electionBack in December, through much of the initiative of Jaime Cardinal Sin, the tandem of Corazon Aquino and Salvador P. Laurel was hastily formed to beat the deadline for filing certificate of candidacy. And the country, mainly in Metro Manila, was thrown into the frenzy of the political campaigns by both sides. In many aspects, rallies and demonstrations and teach-ins were reminiscent of the days immediately preceding the declaration of martial law in 1972. The demonizing of Marcos then had reached its flaming zenith.

But conspicuously absent from the crowd of Cory campaigners were the natdems (acronym for national democrats), those in the national democratic movement. Opposed to the natdems were the socdems (for social democrats), now carrying solo the banner of the Cory cry: “Tama na. Sobra na. Palitan na. Alis dyan!” Of course, along with the new slogan was the ubiquitous trademark of the Marcos hate campaign: “Marcos Hitler! Diktador! Tuta!”

Certainly the natdems were side by side with the socdems, but their cry was different: “Boycott! Boycott! Boycott!”

It had been the position of the Party, as reached in a meeting of the KTKS (Komiteng Tagapagpagganap ng Komite Sentral), not to participate in the election, which it deemed another maneuver of the US to further entrench Marcos in power.

It is impossible to tell for someone outside the KTKS how each member of the committee voted on the issue. So it was difficult for me to determine who among them to express my view of the situation. Though the principle of democratic centralism, by which any member may express his views on any issue, was preached among party members, still one needed extreme caution in expressing his ideas lest he be branded anti-party, an offense punishable by death. But being head of a unit directly responsible to the General Command, I developed intimacy with GC leading elements, particularly Ka Jun (alias of Rolando Kintanar, NPA chief of staff). I believed with Ka Jun, I did not stand to be sanctioned for expressing an honest belief.

The snap election struck me as a grand US show. A US congressional observer team had been dispatched to the Philippines to monitor the conduct of the election. This was odd. The election was exclusively the country’s affair and no other country had business interfering in it. But the US was making sure it had business to do in the event.

Moreover, a large contingent of international media people had been mobilized to cover the election, something which to me was overkill. So Marcos was staking his position ahead of the expiration of his term, was that so big a deal as to warrant such a huge army of international media men? Either way the election would go, they could well cover it through the wires. But they chose to go get the big news, whatever which would come about, first-hand. Again, this was a US handiwork.
And on top of everything, the US Seventh Fleet was just offshore in Manila Bay. The fleet had been US’s greatest arm-twisting instrument in the Asia Pacific. What did it have to do with the Philippine snap presidential election? There must be a war somehow which the US needed to confront just in case. Marcos by then had been, in a manner of saying, hobnobbing with Russia and China, something the US didn’t like. From the time of the American aggression in the 1900s, the Philippines had always been an exclusive US enclave, but Marcos, with martial law, had been increasingly veering the country away from such exclusivity.

So I talked to Ka Jun during a break in his meeting with the General Staff and mustered enough guts to propose that we strike up an alliance with Marcos under the current circumstances. I said it was Marcos who the US was intending to get out of power through the snap election and so it was he who we should ally with inasmuch as we were anti-US imperialism.

At my proposal, Ka Jun spoke no words. He fixed a stare at me, a piercing stare that betrayed a deep inner thing in him, like some kind of soul searching done to accommodate my idea. Ka Charlie, intelligence head of the General Command, overheard the talk on striking up alliances in the crisis and butted in, “That’s a good idea.”

“He is proposing alliance with Marcos,” cut in Ka Jun, clarifying the issue.

“Impossible,” Ka Charlie snapped.

“Marcos is the one the US wants out,” I insisted.

“Marcos is still the US boy in this fight,” Ka Charlie insisted in turn, his voice stern but his lips lined with a grin that indicated he was more entertained than anything else by my idea.

I had hoped that if I could convince Ka Jun on my idea, then he could talk the KTKS into reversing the boycott policy to one of participation – of course, participation in favor of Marcos. I was thinking of the Bolsheviks in 1917. They were together with the Mensheviks in toppling the czarist regime of Nicholas II. Instead of forming a government of their own as a result of the Czar’s downfall, Lenin insisted in joining up with the Kerensky government that had been installed. Once entrenched in that government, the Bolsheviks arrested the entire Kerensky cabinet and with that proclaimed the famous: “All power to the soviets.” Thus was born the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the fruit of a truly bloodless revolution.

What would have happened if Ka Jun had listened to my proposal, carried it to the KTKS, which would then have reversed the boycott policy to one of participation – participation for Marcos? Surely it would have created furor and outrage, frustration and disillusionment among the great masses of the national democratic movement conditioned to yelling “Marcos Hitler! Diktador! Tuta!” This was admitted – but for one single reason: that they believed Marcos was the US boy. If we explained that Cory was the new stooge being groomed in the whole exercise, that in fact the US had organized the international media coverage of the event, coupled with the Congressional monitoring team and the awesome firepower of the US Seventh Fleet, wouldn’t the masses of the revolutionaries have understood that such a reversal was all for advancing the struggle against US imperialism?

In the 1930s, when the Chinese Communist Party had not quite grown big yet, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union convinced it to get absorbed within the Kuomintang Party of Chiang Kai-Sheik, which the Soviet party actually supported with military training, arms and logistical and technical support in the resistance against Japanese aggression. The CCP acquiesced and for a time took its command from the Kuomintang. And as history would eventually prove it, that decision was correct. At an appropriate time, the CCP broke away from the Kuomintang, took over China’s countryside and from there engaged the Kuomintang in one of the bloodiest civil wars in history, culminating in the CCP takeover of the entire China mainland, with the Kuomintang pushed back to the small province of Formosa, now Taiwan.

What would have happened if Ka Jun had listened to my proposal?

The question really no longer mattered at the time. It was too late in the day. As we say, don’t change horses in midstream. Sun Tzu puts it in his own way: Don’t engage an enemy while crossing a river. Everything in the US machination had been set to full throttle and there was no stopping the events from reaching their destined finale: the walk out by canvassers when the Comelec count was showing a Marcos win, the Namfrel showing the discrepancy between the Comelec count and its own which showed Cory winning, the Batasan proclamation of Marcos as winner, the Cory civil disobedience campaign, outrage by US Senator Lugar over what he termed as rampant disenfranchisement of up to 40% of the voters, and the pressure from US senators on Reagan to withdraw support from Marcos.

When Reagan sent Philip Habib to talk to both Marcos and Cory ostensibly to find a middle ground in their conflict, it was actually to ascertain who of the two deserved to be put in place, that is, for US interest. Cory refused to share power with Marcos, so went the reports. But no intimate contents of Habib’s meeting with Cory would naturally find print in the press. Whatever, what was reported was that when Habib stood from the meeting, he told Cory she will win.

That was Friday, February 21. The following day, February 22, Defense Minister Juan Ponce Enrile made big waves of his holing up in Camp Aquinaldo together with AFP Vice Chief of Staff Fidel V. Ramos and RAM leader Col. Gregorio Honasan, announcing his resignation from the Marcos administration – a resignation that already the day before was carried in two US newspapers. And finally, with Cardinal Sin issuing the call for support from the populace for Enrile et al, the crowd poured into EDSA – protecting the very implementers of martial law which they had despised for a decade and a half.

All of a sudden the Party and the national democratic movement which it led found themselves utterly left out in the cold. The boycott policy had left them floating in limbo. What rode on the Cory takeover were the socdems who, save for Edgar Jopson and quite a few others, never really got to reconcile with the revolution.

Now, does it still matter to ask if things would have turned out differently had Marcos decided to fire at the EDSA crowd?

At the time, I thought Marcos would. He had not been depicted as Hitler if he wasn’t capable of gassing 6 million Jews. And I’d welcome it if he did. Marcos firing at the EDSA crowd would have a way of correcting the error of the boycott policy. It would surely enrage the populace and, as Cory told Habib, tear the nation in a widespread bloody confrontation.

As the vociferous firebrand Bal Pinguel of Kabataang Makabayan used to agitate his listeners in the 70s, no nation in history has ever developed without passing through a bloody revolution, citing the American Civil War, the Spanish Civil War and the Chinese Civil War, among others.

So even as my comrade Ka Dave and I were squeezing with the crowd some meters away from the Camp Aquinaldo gate, one being a lookout for the other, we were cautious about the possibility of a sudden rapid firing of armalites or bursts from grenade launchers.

A favorite quote from Mao Tse Tung crossed my mind: “A single spark can start a prairie fire.” This is it, I was urging Marcos to myself, “Strike the matchstick.”

But that Saturday wore on with no one striking a matchstick save for cigarette vendors enjoying a heyday, as did others vending sago gulaman, balut, cheap sandwiches, what have you, selling to the multitudes. It was everything that, again, Mao Tse Tung wouldn’t want a revolution to be: a picnic.

And so as I watched the news program that Monday evening, I suddenly found myself melting in the fire of streaming memories: the bravado of strikers at the Makabayan Publishing Corporation where they barricaded a strike-breaking truck with their bare bodies; the May Day Massacre in Congress in 1971 that killed union organizer Liza Balando and maimed countless others; the Caloocan Massacre that same year which peppered union leader Fred Tibar with bullets so terribly one slug got embedded in his thumb; the infamous Plaza Miranda bombing which killed an innocent girl cigarette vendor and two others and seriously injured the entire LP Senatorial ticket in the 1971 mid-term election – save for one single lucky guy who just happened not to be there when the blasts took place, Ninoy Aquino.

In a video I would watch many years after, Cory declares, “As we all know, Ninoy really wanted to be president. Everything was just planned for 1973.”

But as we all know, too, for the presidency, 1973 never came to Ninoy. Marcos declared martial law in 1972. Seven years and seven months of military detention under the martial law regime, three years of sojourn in the United States for treatment of heart ailment, and come 1983, Ninoy made the greatest political magic of his life. Against the advice of Imelda Marcos, Ninoy came home from the United States. A slug fired by an assassin from a .45 pierced through his skull as he was being led by Avsecom soldiers down the stairs of the China Airlines that brought him into the Manila International Airport. He dropped dead on the tarmac.

The whole nation mourned. Millions brought Ninoy to his final resting place. Above all, Cory got inscrutably ingrained in the consciousness of multitudes who can’t quite outgrow a yearning for gods and heroes. By 1985, the iconization of Cory was complete. She was ready to square off with Marcos.

So this was the realization I had upon viewing that news program on television. Cory was being sworn into office as President of the Republic of the Philippines.

How then could EDSA have blown up into a civil war when the events that led up to it had from the very beginning been crafted only to advance one man’s magnificent obsession with the presidency! With the objective having been achieved, why push the conflict further.

Of course, Ninoy died not getting to that post. Precisely. He should know he could no longer get there. Having undergone triple heart bypass operation, he should be a terminal case. He should have only two choices left, come home dead or come home a hero. Thus did it happen that what Ninoy failed to do in more than two decades of political skirmish with Marcos, he did in one grand act. By getting himself killed, he performed the greatest sleight of hand that ever took place right under the noses of a sadly gullible nation.

Soon after Cory took over the presidency, among her first acts, aside from the return of Meralco and ABS-CBN to the Lopezes, was the release from detention of Jose Maria Sison and Bernabe Buscayno alias Kumander Dante.

Expectedly, Sison began flexing muscles again, so to speak. That is, continue his movement, this time aiming it against the Cory government. At which, Cory issued a reprimand for him not to try it on her.

“You know what I mean,” she said.

Could Cory be referring to that day in 1968 when she served coffee to Ninoy and his guests, a professor from the Universsity of the Philippines and the leader of a breakaway group from the Hukbalahap, Jose Maria Sison and Bernabe Buscayno alias Kumander Dante? With the help of Tarlac Governor Apin Yap, Ninoy had brokered the meeting of the two for a purpose only they knew. At any rate, subsequent to that meeting came the establishment of the Communist Party of the Philippines on December 26, 1968, later followed by the founding of the New People’s Army on March 29, 1969.

Accordingly as the Ninoy-Marcos rivalry intensified, so did the Sisonite national democratic movement. Before EDSA, the New People’s Army had grown to a size of 25,000 regulars, all in company formation. This on top of 500,000 militia spread across the archipelago plus a large army of armed propaganda units the exact number of which I could no longer recall. Suffice it to say that by conventional military reckoning of 1:10 (1 rebel to 10 government troops) as an ideal ratio for engaging the enemy in guerilla warfare, the NPA had come to a high ground. The Philippine armed forces at the time numbered some 150,000, and this number should require only 15,000 of the NPA to be at par with the ratio. In fact, the national situationer issued by the Party during the period already spoke of a so-called strategic counter offensive (SCO) substage at which actions may be launched for achieving strategic stalemate. This is the stage where there is a clear division of territories between the protagonists in the war, each respective armed forces exercising control over them, and people have taken sides in the conflict – the stage of civil war. Once the strategic stalemate is reached, it becomes relatively easy for the rebellion to push on – the strategic offensive – and defeat the enemy.

In 1987, with Cory’s government still a revolutionary one, hence unstable, I had another casual conversation with Ka Jun in which I suggested that the strategy of the rebellion should be to prevent the holding of the next presidential election. The reason I gave was that if the next president would be elected through a democratic process, it would consolidate the political power of the Philippine bourgeoisie thereby weakening the armed struggle, if not rendering it inutile altogether.

“When would be the next presidential election?” Ka Jun asked.

“1992,” I replied.

“We shall have won by then,” Ka Jun said quite confidently.

It exhilarated me no end.

But then came Sison’s Reaffirm in 1991. (Kumander Bilog had been captured by the government earlier and leadership of the Party passed on to Benito Tiamzon, a Sison loyalist implementing the latter’s directives from the Netherlands. Ka Jun’s leadership of the New People’s Army was being contested by Buscayno.) In sum, Reaffirm subjected the boycott policy to severe criticism and proposed re-education for all those guilty of the error.

Particular emphasis was placed on what was regarded as military adventurism of Ka Jun, who was embarking on a strategy opposed to the protracted struggle program of Sison. Ka Jun’s program called for a Sandinista type of uprising that had proven successful in Panama. Groundwork for this strategy had already begun and at the time of EDSA was set to unfold. As I had been critical of the Sison line from the very start, seeing it as a shameless copy cat of the Mao Tse Tung strategy in China in the 1930s, Ka Jun’s line appealed to me as the more realistic, pragmatic, feasible strategy.

Now, in Party parlance, re-education simply means demotion for those guilty of the offense. Or worse yet, expulsion from the Party. Negative reaction to the Sison paper was widespread. Faced with the prospect of being meted punishment, many leading Party elements, including several who were members of the Party Central Committee and who had been critical of the overall Sison strategy of protracted struggle, chose to form their own factions, each faction having its own armed group and pursuing its own line of pushing the revolution.

Reaffirm smashed the Party into splinters. So did it the NPA, which broke up into guerilla units once again – as in the beginning.

Though Ninoy did not make it to the presidency, his widow did. It’s all the same. No need to make use further of the rebellion for which Ninoy had brokered the first meeting of Sison and Buscayno in 1968. Time to tear that rebellion apart. How do you do it?

Reaffirm did the trick.

Post Script:

Popoy Lagman, former Secretary General of the CPP Manila-Rizal Regional Party Committee who organized the much dreaded Alex Boncayao Brigade (ABB) and wrote a number of books criticizing the Sison line of protracted struggle, was gunned down by two assassins inside the UP campus on February 7, 2001.

Next to fall was Ka Jun, Rolando Kintanar, shot and killed on January 23,2003 by reportedly 4 assassins while having meal at a restaurant in the Quezon City Circle. Gregorio Rosal, NPA head in Southern Luzon, owned up to the killing.

Arturo Tabara, Secretary General of the CPP Visayas Commission was assassinated in Quezon City in 2004.

Civil war, anyone?

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About Mauro Gia Samonte

Essayist, novelist, film writer and director

Post Author: Mauro Gia Samonte

Essayist, novelist, film writer and director

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108 Comments on "Memories of a Civil War"

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T4Man
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It’s interesting to view events from the perspective of a misguided revolutionary. Thanks for sharing.

Aside from the theme of the article I pondered over the comment, “no nation in history has ever developed without passing through a bloody revolution” and concluded that it’s generally true but not entirely accurate.

Mauro Gia Samonte
Guest

Read clearly please. It was not the writer’s comment. It was a recollection of an actual statement uttered in the past.

But early on, please stick to issues.No aspersions to character such as “misguided”. You don’t know the man. Thank you.

T4Man
Guest

I didn’t attribute the comment to you and prefaced it with “aside from the theme”.
Frankly, I don’t care if you think my term “misguided” is an aspersion or not. Anyone that believes in the communist ideal is definitely misguided (if not worse) regardless of their intentions. This is proven out by history not by my opinion.

T4Man
Guest

Sorry, I meant to say that I understood perfectly well the source of the statement was not you Mauro, nor the writer neither of which matter because that was not the purpose of my comment.
I suppose GRP should allow communists to post articles as it provokes thought which isn’t a bad thing. However, I will vehemently disagree to the end of my days that communism is not a bad thing. It most certainly is.

Mauro Gia Samonte
Guest
As I explain it elsewhere in this stream of comments, communism hasn’t been achieved yet, save for some, would I say, miniscule mirrors of. I had read somewhere long ago that the Kibutz of Israel is one such mirror. But as a system obtaining as a replacement of the capitalist system, it has not come about yet. Essentially, communism is a setup where the class conflict has been effaced from the face of the earth and so there is no more need for laws, police, prisons and courts to regulate the conduct of man’s living. Instead, what exists is a… Read more »
Mauro Gia Samonte
Guest

Sorry, my fingers slipped and typed “U” instead of “I”. So that last sentence should read: “I sincerely think so and continue to aspire for it, even if only in my solitude.

Trosp
Guest

Unfortunately, you’re the only one who knows it.

Dude
Guest

I don’t understand why Ninoy’s shenanigans with the NPA never gets highlighted by the mainstream media. It just sucks. It’s like an open secret.

Some people think that a civil war is just what the country needs. The country never really became united even after we got our independence. Maybe the regions should just break up since they are ruled by warlords anyway. Matira matibay na lang.

clostridiumgretani
Guest

ninoy’s alliance with npa would never be highlighted nor discussed in mainstream tv because his wife returned mass media to the oligarchs. with that,its like telling them to keep this hideous fact a secret and brainwash people to see ninoy as a hero, not a communist

Joe
Guest

He died trying to improve the lives of Filipino’s, doesn’t that qualify for hero status? it doesn’t matter which political ‘PARTY’ he belonged to, does it? Who cares? In case you MIGHT not know, Political Idea-ology is more a way to divide people than anything else. REMEMBER, together we stand, divided we fall.
Here is an idea: join the WILD party, the rest of them are BORING.

jcc
Guest
There was no alliance between Ninoy and the NPA. As a politician operating in the area with NPA, you cannot afford to be hostile to them. Everyone knows that the NPA are as ruthless and barbaric as the military. Here is a portion of the interview of JOMA about Ninoy as provided for one of the commenters here. “Salas claims that Aquino helped open up the Isabela region to the NPA via his connection with Faustino Dy. Is this a claim you can confirm? JMS Answer: At that time Faustino Dy was indeed pro-Ninoy against Marcos. But it was not… Read more »
Mauro Gia Samonte
Guest

Sad to say, but that’s one shortcoming of the Filipino we have not quite risen above. An acute sense of regionalism that keeps the Philippine nation from achieving that cohesiveness necessary to optimize its devclopment.

Trosp
Guest

During Marcos time, anything against him is ok. Ninoy is an articulate person.

Bill Steffen
Guest

How come the whole world knows about Ninoys “true self” and not the Filipinos? That said, very enlightening article

Mauro Gia Samonte
Guest

On the subject of knowing Ninoy, there’s this essay titled KNOWING NINOY AQUINO http://kamaopunch.com posted February 2012. It might interest you. Thank you.

Mauro Gia Samonte
Guest

Sorry, error in typing the link. Should be kamaopunch.blogspot.com

Mauro Gia Samonte
Guest

Sorry, seems error again. Here goes http://kamaopunch.blogspot.com

scalaberch
Guest

So it was really true that the Aquinos had connections with the commies, this time, from the eyes of a commie himself.

This is one thing that most Pinoys don’t know.

Mauro Gia Samonte
Guest
Point of clarification, term “commie” must be limited within the context of Jose Maria Sison and the movement that toed his line. The reason there occurred a split in the said movement was precisely that there was widespread rejection of his re-affirm. Nothing must be construed as to mean that “commie” is evil. What was evil from the point of view of Kirk was in Sison’s fooling the Filipino people that his movement was for liberating the nation from US imperialism. In fact, according to Kirk’s view, it had been mainly just to demonize Marcos and pave the way for… Read more »
scalaberch
Guest

Hmmm… thanks for the correction… appreciate it much! 🙂 and great article by the way… thanks to ‘Kirk’ 🙂

Mauro Gia Samonte
Guest

Makakarating.

Mauro Gia Samonte
Guest

This kind of comment smacks of the sterling attitude of a man. A jewel that shines forth from a sorry heap of arrogance, pretentiousness and empty braggadocio.

Many thanks, scalaberch.

Mauro Gia Samonte
Guest
or more likely, communism has failed to be observed by people… See what I said, because you’ve got that sterling attitude, you hit the issue right on the head. Communism is a way of life – in your precise term, scalaberch, something people must observe but have not quite done so. Being such, a way of life where pure love and camaraderie reign among men, communism is anathema to a system that thrives and endlessly fattens on oppression and exploitation of the working class, not just in one country but also the world over — capitalism,or to put it in… Read more »
Trosp
Guest

@Mauro

Your commment

“Communism is a way of life – in your precise term, scalaberch, something people must observe but have not quite done so.”

It’s not a way of life. It’s an ideology to dictate the way to live. IMO.

But I can provide you later with the links.

louche
Guest

Communism also failed.

Mauro Gia Samonte
Guest
Utterly, it seems, if I may add. But that’s true only as far as the conventional thinking on communism is concerned. What is such thinking? That communism is that stage of social development to follow after what Lenin called the “withering” away of the state, in turn to come about from the installation of the working class as the new ruling class or the dictatorship of the proletariat. What the world has known so far was such dictatorship or what is popularly called socialism. When we say communism also failed, we are really referring to socialism as that in Russia… Read more »
scalaberch
Guest

or more likely, communism has failed to be observed by people…

louche
Guest

If you would want me to qualify my original statement, at large scales communism is unattainable. It is doable at small scales–the community level (as it is meant to be: note their common root word, pun unintended)–and should be left at that.

Joe
Guest

ALL forms of government eventually fail, look at the West now. CORRUPTION, is the reason as well, it is killinG Europe’s southern states. AND capitalism did not kill the USSR, the CIA, among others first destabilized it, then….

Johnny Saint
Guest
Joe, Good God! You really have to stop putting your faith in conspiracy theories that portray the CIA as some omnipotent entity that is secretly monitoring everyone’s Internet activity. In spite of what Hollywood may have led you to believe, NO SINGLE CIA OPERATION directly caused the Soviet Union’s downfall. Nor did the machinations of evil “capitalists.” The immediate cause WAS economic. This comes down to two factors — the Soviets lost the ARMS RACE with the United States and second, it simply could not compete in the international market. Much of the production in the USSR was devoted to… Read more »
jcc
Guest

hehehe… the communism in china is going western by openng up their main cities to capitalism…. communist russia had long deteriorated… but capitalist america, though deteriorating, is still a big force to reckon with… enough of those misty eyed dreamers of “proletarian” leadership.. it’s a myth. recent china purged showed that their leaders are as corrupt as the capitalist countries.. but the plus in capitalist democracy, the crooks get booted out sooner….

JOE
Guest
Look JOHNNY, I did not say they are omnipotent,YOU DID! OK? neither did I say they monitor everyones’ internet activity, DUDE!Mis-quote me and then ask for proof,HA HA HA!!Just this once:Here’s your proof JOHNNY,a brief example as I have better things to do than explain the OBVIOUS TO YOU! ONE small example, 1973 USA, the wheat embargo on the USSR(perpetrated by guess who?), was engineered at a time during the ‘cold-war'(an arms chase,not an arms race…do you know what that means JOHNNY,DO YA? DUH!).The CIA’s attempts to de-stabilize the USSR by having its citizens over-throw the government that could not… Read more »
Johnny Saint
Guest
JOE, Apparently you aren’t familiar with the use of exaggeration in writing to emphasize the point I was trying to convey. But you are correct in part of your assessment. You shouldn’t be giving disjointed, incoherent, rambling tirades that fail to impart anything other than snippets of facts taken out of context. I’m confused — were you explaining that the wheat embargo single-handedly caused the USSR to collapse or that the CIA committed an act of war on US citizens? Which is it? At any rate you are also partially correct in that the US congress has to be aware… Read more »
Johnny Saint
Guest

I forgot to mention the failed policies that led to disasters like the Chernobyl meltdown. And the cost of protracted war in Afghanistan that was supposed to create a bulwark between the Soviet Union and the rising Islamic fundamentalist threat from Iran.

I suppose, according to you, those never played a part in anything that led to the collapse of the Soviet system. Then again, Congressman Charlie Wilson did support the CIA operation to arm the mujahideen.

JOE
Guest
I said I would explain one thing for you,JOHNNY,ONE! and you must feel sooo proud of yourself for that remarkable put down at the end of your 2nd comment,HUH? as if a scant look in the rear view mirror, as well as 10 minutes of typing out a brief synopsis of happenings from 40 yrs. ago (for your needed illustrative purposes only) could be gleaned from the back of anything. Just stop, your embarrassing yourself, and if you need more of that proof you asked me for, just look at what you said right before you mentioned the U.S. congressman’s… Read more »
Johnny Saint
Guest
JOE, 🙂 Figured you would zero in on that. Sorry to disappoint you but the Afghan conflict, while it was a costly engagement for the Soviet Union that was demoralizing at home, contributed only marginally to the decline of the Soviet system. Were the CIA in Afghanistan? Yes. So were the Saudis, the Pakistanis and the British MI6 and SAS. Iran, Egypt, even the People’s Republic of China had programs to assist the mujahideen. The reality is that in the wake of the botched Iran hostage rescue, the American CIA had become skittish and had fewer than ten operatives in… Read more »
Trosp
Guest
There’s this Reagan policy. Remember Sovie collapsed during Reagan’s term – “From the outset, Reagan moved against détente and beyond containment, substituting the objective of encouraging “long-term political and military changes within the Soviet empire that will facilitate a more secure and peaceful world order”, according to an early 1981 Pentagon defense guide. Harvard’s Richard Pipes, who joined the National Security Council, advocated a new aggressive policy by which “the United States takes the long-term strategic offensive. This approach therefore contrasts with the essentially reactive and defensive strategy of containment”. Pipes’s report was endorsed in a 1982 National Security Decision… Read more »
Johnny Saint
Guest
Trosp, Reagan’s policies were a natural progression of the “containment” policies initiated by Pres. Nixon. It’s my personal philosophy that if there will be violence, I am not going to be the one to start it, but, given the opportunity, I will end it. And make sure it does not recur. Look at the sequence of events in totality. This is what is happening here. If Nixon were still in power in 1981-1989, he would have likely come to the same conclusion. Moreover, the aggressive posture of Reagan’s America is, in part, a response to the weakening of the US… Read more »
Johnny Saint
Guest

Typing too fast.

This is meant to read:

“When the Saudis announced they were going to step up production that same year, the collapse of the overextended, petrified Soviet empire was assured.”

T4Man
Guest
Nonsense. Let’s create a country called Erronia. In the spirit of the communist ideal all the citizens of Erronia share all property equally, in other words, everything belongs to the state. Since I’m a farmer the people of Erronia allow me to work on a hectare of land growing food for the people. I’m very excited about our glorious new nation and the first year I work hard for the people and apply my experience and knowledge to produce a bumper crop. At harvest time, members from the Party come and take all the produce except for what my family… Read more »
Libertas
Guest

“Benigno Aquino Sr., aka “Igno,” was a long-time
Filipino politician. During the Second World War, he
served as Speaker of the National Assembly in the
Japanese-controlled government. Following the
expulsion of the Japanese, the U.S. jailed Igno in
Japan , then extradited him to the Philippines to be
tried for treason. He died of a heart attack in
December of 1947″ asean history

the aquinis have always hidden tge truth and perpetuated a myth.
p-noy is maybe like hus grandfather, who of course is never mentioned for obvious reasons. and people still question the “heart attack” story.

jcc
Guest

half-truth…

Trosp
Guest

This idiot is still around?

jcc
Guest

if you read hard enough the trust of the article, is that something was wrong with american interference in the affairs of the filipinos… but when america jailed those who crossed over the japanese camp, we hailed america as benefactor and liberator… both are imperialists who subjugated the filipino people.. they both killed hundreds of filipinos, the insurectos during the american pacification (1898-1902) campaign, including the moros,in (1902-1913) and the guerilla and guerilla symphatizers and civilians during the 4 years of japanese rule.

Libertas
Guest

i googled “traitor”, and it came back “aquino” !

Mauro Gia Samonte
Guest

Splendid style!

Joe
Guest

You could find the picture of a lot of other people too, if you look at the right dictionary.
If theft of public funds, using influence to win gov’t. contracts is Corruption, is that also meeting the threshold of ‘traitor/betrayer’ of the public and its assets. The piggy-bank is looted regularly, all ya gotta do is….

jcc
Guest
That Marcos was dethroned because he was going against Uncle Sam… and that they found a new proxy in Cory.. Fact or Fiction? “It was Spence more than anyone else, with his military background, who gave the heroic Marcos legend a ring of validity when his biography “For Every Tear A Victory” was published in New York during the Philippine presidential campaign of 1964-65, which first carried Ferdinand and Imelda into Malacanang Palace.The Spence book was widely distributed to American newspapers and magazines, to embassies, and to U.S. government agencies and U.S. government agencies. It was not clearly recognized that… Read more »
Trosp
Guest

This guy is really an idiot.

“That Marcos was dethroned because he was going against Uncle Sam… and that they found a new proxy in Cory.. Fact or Fiction?”

AH (ass hole), Marcos is always Uncle Sam’s boy.

jcc
Guest
Wheew… Libertas, If you keep reading MGS, you’ll lost your historical perspective. Benigno Aquino Sr., the secretary of interior was far more patriotic than anyone you think… Read it from the expert. “Laurel had observed that the moment the provisional Council of State was accepted by the Japanese high command, it would mean the disappearance of the American government and the Commonwealth government, which would be replaced, at least in the occupied territory, by a de facto government — “and it will be as if we had declared President Quezon dismissed as head of state.” Aquino rose to remind the… Read more »
louche
Guest

Oh, so Aquino Sr. argued for “independence” therefore he is a patriot? “Independence” back then being no more than a convenient emotional ploy to sway the masses while–for the political and economic elite–really wanting freedom to rule without the annoying foreigners, this doesn’t mean much.

What makes him different from the others who would side with another invader that promises eventual independence? Being a proponent of Oriental Pride?

Not a traitor, then, just a tool. Even more pathetic.

jcc
Guest
Again, you did not get your info from the right source. Please read Nick Joaquin… Over MGS, I can pick him easily. 🙂 An anomalous typhoon, “the worst to hit Manila in years,” was raging on Christmas Eve, when the body was transferred to the university of Santo Tomas, where, on December 29, the Congress of the Philippines paid tribute to the late solon. He was lauded as “instrumental in the success of the people’s fight for independence.” Among the speakers was Claro M. Recto, who would provoke controversy with his oration over the bier. While Aquino, said Recto, was… Read more »
jcc
Guest
Fast forward that death while watching a boxing match at Rizal Stadium to 1983 Tarmac hideous rubout of Ninoy – both resulted to outpouring of grief of a grateful nation over their beloved sons. Here is Nick Joaquin again. “Daddy (Antonio, Ninoy’s brother speaking) said he had to be accused by the guerrillas because ‘if nobody accused me the Japanese would never believe I was working for them.” So he made it appear he was hated by the guerrillas, so the Japanese would open up to him. And he saved a lot of guerrillas in Fort Santiago. In fact, Primicias… Read more »
Trosp
Guest

This idiot jcc will always make you feel inferior because you haven’t read what he read.

Pwe!

louche
Guest

“Right” source? What you have from Nick Joaquin are testimonies from people. Just as MGS has testimonies from other people.

jcc
Guest
@louche, MGS, The difference Touche is that Nick Joaquin’s witnesses gave their account in a “freer environment.” The witnesses against Ninoy Aquino that he was a communist organizer/sympathizer/financier were given by people during martial law. Some of these witnesses even testified in the Marcos Military tribunal which earned Ninoy a death sentence. After testifying, some of the witnesses miraculously disappeared. Whether they disappeared so they can no longer recant their testimonies or they were silenced because they testified against Ninoy would depend on one’s bias. But during his imprisonment, Ninoy was penniless and helpless, while the Marcos bandwagon continues to… Read more »
jcc
Guest

I compare Ninoy’s trial before the military tribunal to that of the trial by the Magdalo court over Bonifacio and his brother.

Mauro Gia Samonte
Guest
There is no reply tag in jcc’s comment after this, so may I post my reaction in your comment box, or whatever you call it. Just to satisfy jcc, the very first time I heard anything about the Ninoy-CPP liaison was sometime in he late 70s. The late Fernando Poe, Jr. commissioned me to do a screenplay of the life of Luis Taruc and so I got a schedule for interviewing the Huk Supremo. In explaining the split Kumander Dante did from the Huk, the venerable revolutionary leader spoke of the incident where Ninoy Aquino had arranged a meeting between… Read more »
Mauro Gia Samonte
Guest

That’s exactly my mission. To disabuse people’s minds of the historical perspective that Ninoy is a hero. He is not.

jcc
Guest

The Taruc-Ninoy meeting was to convince the former to surrender.

The Dante-Ninoy meeting did not give any information that Dante admitted Ninoy being their financier. The NPA commanders/witnesses that say Ninoy provided them arms did not come from Dante. It came from other NPA ‘commanders, ‘Pusa’ or Bilog who were liquidated later.

That Ninoy is not a hero is a question of perception… We considered Gen. Sakay and Ricarte traitors also and not heroes. You even consider Lincoln a lesser mortal compared to Marcos.

Mauro Gia Samonte
Guest
I never mentioned about a Ninoy-Taruc meeting, did I? Ar any rate, on such meeting being for convincing Taruc to surrender, I’ve had education enough to still need the clarification you make. And as to the Dante-Ninoy meeting saying anything about Ninoy being Dante’s financier, again I’ve made no statements whatsoever or references to that effect. As to Ninoy’s heroism being a question of perception, thank you for finally agreeing with the proposition I simply wished to advance in citing Rashomon: that truth is, just as you say now, a question of perception. You believe Ninoy is a hero, I… Read more »
jcc
Guest
MGS, You were being incoherent… Please read the previous threads. It was your position that Ninoy was a CPP-NPA financier. And I said those who said he was testified in the Military Tribunal and suddenly vanished. And that these people talked about Ninoy involvement in the CPP-NPA during martial law when the atmosphere was not “free”. Then your rebuttal was that the JOMA-Ninoy and Dante-Ninoy meeting was done outside Martial law atmosphere therefore they were free to talk. But I said those meetings did not have the information that Ninoy was financing the CPP-NPA. Then you agree that those meetings… Read more »
jcc
Guest
@MGS; Let us engage in intellectual masturbation. Edgar Jopson and countless young communist cadres who died in the frontline during the repressive years of Marcos were considered heroes by the left. They will become mainstream heroes if the left triumphed in its crusade. Heroes and villains are time-dependent paradigm. Is Aquino a present-day hero? Aquino believes that Marcos was the scourge of Philippine democracy and offered himself as an alternative. He died pursuing that dream. Or if he was wrong in the analysis that Marcos was a scourge, was dying in that elusive pursuit makes him a traitor? Did we… Read more »
Mauro Gia Samonte
Guest
So you see, jcc, with this kind of presentation, you’re such a sane person worth one’s time listening to. But I regret that this comment box is too small for my views on Ninoy by which to reply to your intelligent discourse. I would, therefore, recommend to you my essay KNOWING NINOY AQUINO posted in my blog KAMAO http://kamaopunch.blogspot.com in time for the EDSA celebration February 2012. With that I’d feel being given a fair chance to advance arguments viz your own. Since the link of my blog is posted here anyway, readers who might want to follow you there… Read more »
jcc
Guest

Rubbish… Where is your documentary archives that support your position… I will come back to you later complete with citations to disprove your narrative…

Trosp
Guest

Intellectual masturbation?

And you consider yourself intellectual?

Pwe!

Thomas Jefferson
Guest

Did not the revolution devour its own? Jose Maria Sison and company destroyed thousands of their own comrades during the NPA purges. Remember Oplan Ajos, Oplan Zombie and Oplan Missing Link? Their kasama were tortured, murdered and buried in mass graves. Read the book: “Suffer Thy Comrades.” I do not believe in a communist civil war. It will never solve the problems of this country. If Jose Maria Sison and his followers can purge their own, they can purge the Sovereign Filipino People. The political opportunism of the Aquinos was revealed by Jose Maria Sison in his own website.

http://www.josemariasison.org/?p=5114

http://www.josemariasison.org/?p=3225

Mauro Gia Samonte
Guest

Thank you for the links, confirm the general assertions in the article. Your comments well taken.

jcc
Guest

assertions of forked-tongues? 🙂

Mauro Gia Samonte
Guest
To elaborate, outstanding revelations in the links are the following: 1 ) Sison has a hard time distancing himself from Ninoy despite obvious evidences indicating a closer relationship he had with Ninoy than meets the eye; 2 ) Ninoy regularly updates the US embassy of his dealings with the CPP, the political situation in the Philippines, particularly the insurgency, his political plans, etc., much like a soldier to his superior. This mirrors a kind of relationship Ninoy had with the US that needed coursing through the US embassy regularly, quite similar to that done by undercover agents of the CIA;… Read more »
Joe
Guest
Thanks 4 the history lesson, but to call for a civil-war? On what grounds, cessation from the country? Which parts against which parts? De-centralizing the gov’t. would have a dramatic effect on the economy, winners and losers all around,ruined/devalued currency.The military would get involved somehow, KILLING fellow Filipino’s? AND EXACTLY what would a real civil-war achieve? The ousting of the current gov’t. would still need to be replaced,WITH WHAT? it may be the form of gov’t. that is the problem, is this wishful thinking? AND how, at what cost, and who is going to have the balls to do it?… Read more »
Mauro Gia Samonte
Guest
With his concluding question “Civil war,anyone?”, what Kirk is debunking was a comment to my previous post that the Jose Maria Sison “uprising” was a civil war. From his narration it was clear that in the end he realized that the rebellion was launched by Sison and his ilk not to fight US imperialism but to advance Ninoy’s ambition to become president. The question would otherwise just say: What civil war are you talking about? There was none. But then people has a way of saying things. They call it style. Give it to them. There’s not much effort really… Read more »
jcc
Guest
hehehe… Ninoy was a rich politician.. Why would he advance a communist agenda? He shed though his ‘politician’s culture during his imprisonment and became a statesman just like his grandfather and father…. people who have their own politican bias would look to the Aquinos as the traitors, but historians adjugdged them otherwise. They would even fault Ninoy for Cory’s ‘turn-over’ of Meralco to the Lopezes. That is ‘free enterprise’ for you. The Lopezes owned that outfit. Marcos grabbed the Lopez businesses during martial law. These enterprises did not benefit the people while in the hands of Marcos and his cronies.… Read more »
Johnny Saint
Guest
MGS, You never did define the term “civil war.” Is that not the heart of your argument? That the conflict in the Philippines does not meet the requirement of “civil war” because, as you postulate, it was merely a political maneuver to secure the presidency for Ninoy Aquino. This according to you, did not meet the criteria for “civil war.” James Fearon, of the Peace Research Endowment, defines a civil war as “a violent conflict within a country fought by organized groups that aim to take power at the center or in a region, or to change government policies.” Ann… Read more »
jcc
Guest

I agree Johnny Saint… Even Alfred W. McCoy looked at the Hukbahalap movement and the NPA and MILF uprisings as a form of civil war.

Mauro Gia Samonte
Guest
First off, thank you for the info. I did come across some definitions of civil war but on final thought, I don’t think they figure here. The definitions you give seem limited to form. My particular concern on the subject is substance. And in this regard, the classic civil wars, American civil war, Chinese civil war, etc., have a common substance of being a people’s struggle. My question in this is, was the Sison-led uprising a people’s war? I say, none such. And I feel greatly indebted to one current commenter, Thomas Jefferson, who provided links containing information generally confirming… Read more »
Johnny Saint
Guest
I’m sorry, I cannot agree. The Communist Party of the Philippines under Jose Maria Sison has as its stated political aim, a REVOLUTION leading toward the eventual establishment of a socialist state. Sison, himself, discusses this in his book “Philippine Society and Revolution.” The profound transformation of both the political and economic policies of the Philippines qualifies as the first part of the definition of “civil war.” The insurgencies carried out by the party’s guerrilla wing — the NPA — constitute their worker-peasant revolutionary war in the countryside, specifically targeting landlords and business owners. This is the second part of… Read more »
Mauro Gia Samonte
Guest
Let’s come down to this clean, okay. When we talk about civil war, we talk about it as a genuine people’s struggle, meaning a struggle that aims to achieve people’s aspirations. For which reason in fact, always one side of the conflict in a civil is the state, as you pointed out. Given this premise, therefore, to say the Sison-instigated uprising under Marco’s term was a civil, is to answer the question: Was it for achieving genuine aspirations of the Filipino people? If yes, next question is: What were these aspirations? From a reading of Sison’s “Philippine Society and Revolution”… Read more »
Mauro Gia Samonte
Guest

Sorry, but in my first reply, I inadvertently failed to add “war” to
“civil” in at least two instances. Read “civil war” in those instances. Thank you.

Johnny Saint
Guest

MGS,

Didn’t have time to answer until now.

I’m more convinced than ever that what you mean is “REVOLUTION” RATHER THAN “CIVIL WAR.”

I’m sure Lenin would agree.

JOE
Guest
OH YEAH,act as if I don’t get it and am a simple brain HA HA HA,you make me laugh! I really don’t give a shit and ,most likely, just like the other readers commenters here today did not read it either,HA! Write an essay and assume that people read the last one, RIGHT! and then make a comment about someone who did not read it as if that person is not a ‘nuanced’/informed reader, BWAH HA HA AHA!!! Not everyone gives a shit about a group of individuals that had an idea to do something, BUT did not do it,… Read more »
Johnny Saint
Guest

You sure use a lot of “BWAH HA HA AHA” and “PFF” to express indignation.

And a lot of hanging sentences…

Try putting down complete thoughts instead of ranting.

ChinoF
Member

I’ll have to repeat this tale, wonder what you can make of it, Mr. Samonte.

My mom tells that my late dad, then a young officer in the Constabulary (late 1960s or early 70s), was ordered to escort a mysterious car from Manila to Hacienda Luisita in Tarlac. When they arrived, my dad was shocked to find out that the passenger of the car was none other than Bernabe Buscayno – Kumander Dante. They had escorted the enemy.

Wonder what was Buscayno doing at Luisita

jcc
Guest
So what’s wrong with that chinof? Politicians in Tarlac having good relationship with the ‘rebels is a fact of life in Tarlac. Here is a snippet of the link that says Aquino was a commie coddler. “In another communication to the State Department dated September 21, the US Embassy sheds further light on what Ninoy told the American officials. On September 12, Ninoy had a “lengthy luncheon with two embassy officers about the “growing strength of Communist dissidence in the Philippines.” In this luncheon, the senator “readily admitted his past ties with the several Communist factions in the Philippines.” He… Read more »
jcc
Guest

in another way of speaking, who is the real enemy? Buscayno who was pro-masa or Marcos, a pro-cronies.. its all a question of perception. 🙂

ChinoF
Member

Buscayno was of the NPA, right? Well, “escorting the enemy” is my mom’s words.

jcc
Guest

i hope too ChinoF, but if bright spots you mean the rub-out of the Kuratong Baleleng, the murders of Dacer and Curbito, and the recent ‘encounter’ in Atimonan over “jueteng turf”, that, those spots are not too bright for me.. 🙂

Mauro Gia Samonte
Guest

This for ChinoF too. Don’t take it piecemeal. Here are the links from Thomas Jefferson. Complete info. http://www.josemariasison.org/?p=5114

http://www.josemariasison.org/?p=3225

jcc
Guest

Or was not your dad the enemy? The constabulary was the tool of oppression used by the Gringo-white in suppressing the insurectos, then after they left, they trained their guns for those whom we called hukbalahaps who were trying to fight for a piece of land to farm.

That the Hukbalahaps later, and the NPA much later turned to banditry, was another matter. But the PC turned to become private armies of the politicians, and at times jueteng collectors of the provincial commanders and the politicians.

ChinoF
Member

Leave my dad out of this. He was one of those free of corruption. Some of his former colleagues say our family still struggling today because my dad was never corrupt.

ChinoF
Member

Hmm, on second thought, since I was the one who mentioned my dad, count him out of the “corrupt” you mention.

jcc
Guest

i admire your dad.. but your ‘dad’ as used here is ‘generic’ meaning the philippine constabulary.

ChinoF
Member

There were still bright spots in the Constabulary, and perhaps in its descendant, the PNP, today.

Mauro Gia Samonte
Guest

Thomas Jefferson’s links say it all. Check them out. Now skeletons are going out of the closet.

LA702
Guest

@ Mauro G S

“Kirk” in Scottish, means “church”. Was Kirk, as the central character in your article a person whose real identity you purposely did not mention, or was it as fictitious as the whole story line particularly events regarding Ninoy Aquino.

The article was a witch hunt out of a novelist’ imagination. A good job nevertheless in illiciting some serious reactions.

Mauro Gia Samonte
Guest

Kirk is as real as you and I, his story not a figment of my imagination but an honest admission of struggles gone through, sacrifices made, and pain and frustration over having put at stake one whole lifetime pursuing a civil war that never was!

Trosp
Guest

LA

He must have taken us for idiot in this post. Heh…

Trosp
Guest

And who is Kirk BTW, Mauro?

Libertas
Guest

I visit cuba on a regular basis and castro’s model, which only limped along due to russian aid (now stopped) and overseas remittances is officially dead as it realigns its economy and opens up to local entrepreneurship and foreign visitors/investors. As a result it is starting to change rapidly – the ‘romance’ of the place may be disappearing but the populace are starting to see benefits, albeit a long way to go, but i suspect they will do well in the long term
one day even the philippines may see the light and become an open economy.

Johnny Saint
Guest

One thing I hope the Cubans maintain is their fleet of 1950’s american automobiles. I have always thought of them as quintessential works of mechanical art. Now everything you see on the road looks like an electric shaver. 😉

Hyden Toro
Guest

I did not agree with the dictatorship of Marcos. It was the U.S. State Department , who kicked out Marcos. Marcos was against the extension of the U.S. Bases agreement. The U.S. knows about the Aquino-NPA coalition. However, they are more interested on their own interests. This is where the two turncoats: Enrile and Ramos , came in. To save their skins. Honasan wanted to become a star…Honasan had no battlefield experience. He is good in posing for pictures, and is the son-in-law of Enrile. The Bastard of Enrile married Honasan…

jcc
Guest

evidence please, hyden toro.. or is this simply an opinion.

Amir Al Bahr
Guest

Better to have an informed opinion than mounds of information without any insight in it, right, abogado de patola?

jcc
Guest

@Amir Al Bahr;

the mounds of information i have provided are insightful enough unless you do not know how to digest them.. i cannot add nor subtract to the meaning of those information because they are clear enough to me, and i hope to everyone.

LA702
Guest
@ Hyden Toro Sterling Seagrave, investigative author in his book “Marcos Dynasty” said that Marcos was deposed from power because he refused to hand over the gold bullion he recovered from the Yamashita and the Tallano treasures. Tallano, according to historians was “king” of Maharlika and the rightful owner of the Philippine islands before the Spaniards came. Google the name “Tallano” and find out how this persons gold bullions worth trillions of dollars were taken away from him. His gold financed the opening of the Philippines Central Bank, the constuction of the most exclusive girls school in the Philippines called… Read more »
Mauro Gia Samonte
Guest
@jcc Quoting here verbatim your comment at issue lest you make another unfounded accusation of incoherence. My rebuttals, enclosed in parentheses. You were being incoherent… (Not at any point.) Please read the previous threads. It was your position that Ninoy was a CPP-NPA financier. (Quote any statement of mine to that effect. I never made any.) And I said those who said he was testified in the Military Tribunal and suddenly vanished. (I leave all that to you.) And that these people talked about Ninoy involvement in the CPP-NPA during martial law when the atmosphere was not “free”. (Go ahead.)… Read more »
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[…] on rewriting that glorious event to suit their own political bent.  Lately, an article   in Get Real Philippines  gave credit to the US-CIA in maneuvering Marcos out of power because of his nationalist sentiment […]

Jose Gracia
Guest

So why was Ninoy absent when the his partymates got bombed in Plaza Miranda?